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Abstract:

Introduction: basilar artery thrombosis (BAT) is the cause of about 1% of ischemic strokes (IS). About 27% of strokes in posterior circulation are associated with BAT. Mortality in BAT without recanalization reaches 85-95%. In 80.7% of patients with BAT at the onset of disease a decrease in level of consciousness is observed, in 34% of them – coma.

Aim: was to show the possibility of performing thrombectomy (TE) in patients with BAT and reduced level of consciousness as the only effective way to prevent death in this pathology.

Materials and methods: two case reports of successful TE from basilar artery in patients with IS and decrease in level of wakefulness to coma, are presented.

Results: article describes two successful cases of TE in patients with angiographically confirmed BAT and decrease in the level of consciousness to moderate coma at the onset of disease. In two presented patients, TE made a complete restoration of BA blood flow. Good clinical outcomes were noted in both patients by 90th day of disease (modified Rankin scale 0-2 points). The Rivermead mobility index at discharge from hospital was 14 points, and the Bartel index by 90th day – complete independence from others in everyday life (from 90 to 100 points), and that once again indicates that TE in BAT is not only a life-saving procedure, but significantly improves functional and clinical outcomes of disease.

Conclusions: basilar artery thrombosis is a life-threatening condition that requires urgent reperfusion therapy as the only effective method of treatment. Endovascular treatment for basilar artery thrombosis should be considered in all patients, regardless the decrease in the level of consciousness at the onset of disease, because thrombectomy is a life-saving procedure.

  

 

References 

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https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK532241/

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https://doi.org/10.1016/S1474-4422(18)30233-3

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https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK551854/

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https://doi.org/10.1159/000486690

5.     Writing Group for the BASILAR Group, Zi W, Qiu Z, et al. Assessment of Endovascular Treatment for Acute Basilar Artery Occlusion via a Nationwide Prospective Registry. JAMA Neurol. 2020; 77(5): 561-573.

https://doi.org/10.1001/jamaneurol.2020.0156

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https://doi.org/10.1016/S1474-4422(16)30177-6

7.     Liu Z, Liebeskind DS. Basilar Artery Occlusion and Emerging Treatments. Semin Neurol. 2021; 41(1): 39-45.

https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0040-1722638

8.     Powers WJ, Rabinstein AA, Ackerson T, et al. Guidelines for the Early Management of Patients With Acute Ischemic Stroke: 2019 Update to the 2018 Guidelines for the Early Management of Acute Ischemic Stroke: A Guideline for Healthcare Professionals From the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke. 2019; 50(12): 344-418.

https://doi.org/10.1161/STR.0000000000000211

9.     Baik SH, Park HJ, Kim JH, et al. Mechanical Thrombectomy in Subtypes of Basilar Artery Occlusion: Relationship to Recanalization Rate and Clinical Outcome. Radiology. 2019; 291(3): 730-737.

https://doi.org/10.1148/radiol.2019181924

10.   Weber R, Minnerup J, Nordmeyer H, et al. Thrombectomy in posterior circulation stroke: differences in procedures and outcome compared to anterior circulation stroke in the prospective multicentre REVASK registry. Eur J Neurol. 2019; 26(2): 299-305.

https://doi.org/10.1111/ene.13809

11.   Kang DH, Jung C, Yoon W, et al. Endovascular Thrombectomy for Acute Basilar Artery Occlusion: A Multicenter Retrospective Observational Study. J Am Heart Assoc. 2018; 7(14): 009419.

https://doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.118.009419

12.   Liu X, Dai Q, Ye R, et al. Endovascular treatment versus standard medical treatment for vertebrobasilar artery occlusion (BEST): an open-label, randomised controlled trial. Lancet Neurol. 2020; 19(2): 115-122.

https://doi.org/10.1016/S1474-4422(19)30395-3

13.   Potter JK, Clemente JD, Asimos AW. Hyperdense basilar artery identified on unenhanced head CT in three cases of pediatric basilar artery occlusion. Am J Emerg Med. 2021; 42: 221-224.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajem.2020.11.055

 

Abstract:

Lesions of the LCA stem are found in 2,5-4 % of patients with coronary heart disease who endured coronography, and are accompanied by more severe symptomatology, higher morbidity and mortality rates, and difficulty of radical correction. According to the generally accepted guidelines, the operation of coronary artery bypass has up to now been a method of choice in treatment of the LCA stem. Nevertheless, endovascular methods of treatment for LCA stem lesions have relatively long been used, while implementation into clinical practice of drug-eluding stents has considerably improved the remote outcomes, which made it possible to consider LCA stem stenting as a real alternative to ACB. Hence, the problem concerning indications for and contraindications to LCA stem stenting remains unsolved today. We retrospectively analysed a total of 75 endovascular interventions on the LCA stem in 67 patients, with an isolated lesion of the LCA stem being found only in 7,4 % of the patients. The remaining subjects had lesions of the LCA stem on the background of a multivascular lesion of the coronary bed, including occlusion of the RCA observed in 16,4 % of cases. Successive revascularization was performed in 98,64 % of cases, with no lethal outcomes. One patient required urgent ACB due to development of occluding dissection of the circumflex branch. Complications in the immediate postoperative period were observed in two patients and were represented by non-Q myocardial infarction and stroke. LCA stem stenting proved an efficient and safe method of treatment for coronary heart disease. A comparative analysis of the immediate results of LCA stem stenting and ACB revealed advantages of stenting, consisting in no lethal outcomes (in our series) and a lower short-term rate of postoperative complications.

  

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16.   Бокерия Л. А., Алекян Б. Г., Бузиашвили Ю. И. и др

 

One of the most significant problems in interventional cardiology is a correct drug-support after held procedure. First of all it is the prevention of stent thrombosis - application of anticoagulants and antiaggregants. The variety of these drugs on sale constantly grows - that leads to have clear ideas of their properties.

Article presents the review of clinical researches devoted to the recently appeared and early not used in Russia, drug Angioks (Bivalirudin), which has the same efficiency as well-known drugs, but is more safe.

 

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15.   Waksman R., Wolfram R.M., Torguson R.L., Okubagzi P., Xue Z., Suddath W.O., Satler L.F., Kent K.M. Switching from Enoxaparin to Bivalirudin in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndromes without ST-segment Elevation who Undergo Percutaneous Coronary Intervention. Results from SWITCH- a multicenter clinical trial. J. Invasiv. Cardiol. 2006; 18(8): 370-5.

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