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Introduction: pathological tortuosity of internal carotid arteries (ICA) is widespread; its frequency in population varies within 18-34%. Currently, there are several approaches for the determination of indications for surgical intervention in pathological ICA tortuosity. The main criteria are hemodynamic changes in the arterial flow and the presence of neurological symptoms, so an informative preoperative examination is an integral part in treatment strategy determination in patients' subsequent treatment.

Aim: was to estimate the condition of carotid arteries and substance of the brain in isolated pathological tortuosity and in combination with stenotic lesions, based on results of CT angiography.

Materials and methods: we analyzed results of examination and treatment of 70 patients. Ultrasound and CT angiography of brachiocephalic arteries were performed on a Philips iCT 256-slice multislice computed tomograph. During CT angiography, a non-contrast study, arterial and venous phases of contrast enhancement were performed with an intravenous bolus injection of 50.0 ml of isoosmolar iodinated contrast-agent at 4-5 ml/sec.

Patients were divided into two groups: patients with isolated pathological carotid tortuosity (28 pts) and patients with a combination of carotid tortuosity and stenotic lesions (42 pts). We assessed the effect of carotid tortuosity on the severity of the brain tissue alterations using statistical analysis.

Results: a lesser severity of changes in the substance of the brain was noted in patients in the group with isolated pathological tortuosity of ICA. In 9 cases, we did not detect focal lesions; in 15 cases, small foci of microangiopathy and individual cerebrospinal fluid cysts were noted, in 4 patients, we noted areas and zones of cystic-glial changes. S- and C-shaped deformation became the most frequent variants of tortuosity; the formation of 3 saccular aneurysms (two true and one false) was revealed.

Manifestations of ischemic damage of the brain substance in the group of patients with a combination of ICA tortuosity and stenotic lesion were more pronounced. Thus, in 11 cases, zones and areas of cystic-glial changes were determined within the framework of past cerebrovascular accidents; in 20 patients, foci of microangiopathy expressed in varying degrees, as well as individual cerebrospinal fluid cysts, were noted. In 11 cases, no focal lesions were detected in the brain.

Statistical processing showed a correlation between the condition of carotid arteries and the presence of focal brain damage - in the group with combination of pathological tortuosity and stenosis of ICA, more pronounced chronic ischemic brain damage was detected (p=0,012).

Conclusion: CT-angiography was noted to be highly informative in assessment of condition of carotid arteries and brain substance in patients with isolated pathological tortuosity, as well as in combination with a stenotic lesion of internal carotid arteries. With a combination of pathological tortuosity and a stenosis in internal carotid arteries, data were obtained on a more pronounced damage of the brain substance. According to computed tomography, clinical manifestations of chronic cerebrovascular insufficiency were generally more pronounced compared to changes in the brain substance. However, there was a correlation between the increase in the degree of chronic cerebrovascular insufficiency and the aggravation of the state of the brain substance.



Aim: was to define possibilities of multispiral computed tomography (MSCT) in assessment of condition of aorta and it's branches, during preparation for reconstructive surgery in patients with horseshoe kidney.

Material and methods: for the period 2015-2018, 415 patients were examined during preparation for aortic reconstructive surgery. Patient underwent target ultrasonic diagnostics, followed by computed tomography made on 256-slice Philips iCT, before and after injection of contrast agent. We used a special program for comparing various phases of the study ("Fusion") for better visualization of arterial vessels of kidney, aorta and renal excretory system. In 5 cases, a combination of aortic pathology with abnormal horseshoe kidney was revealed.

Results: in all cases we revealed branched type of blood supply of abnormal kidney A total of 5 patients had 25 renal arteries. In 4 cases we revealed branched type of renal veins, its total ammount was 20. Duplication of upper urinary tract was found in 1 case. From the surveyed group, 3 patients out of 5 were operated. Intraoperatively all data detected by CT scan regarding the condition of the aorta, the position of the kidney, the number of renal vessels were confirmed.

Conclusion: MSCT allows detailly assessment of anatomical features of abnormal horseshoe kidney and facilitates subsequent surgical intervention in patients with a rare combination of aortic pathology and a horseshoe kidney.



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Aim: was to assess computed tomography angiography (CTA) abilities in analysis of internal carotid artery (ICA) critical atherosclerotic lesions.

Material and method: for the period 2014-2016 - 321 patients underwent examination (ultrasound and CTA of brachiocephalic arteries) prior to surgical treatment of ICA occlusive disease. CTA was made on Philips iCT 256-slice (noncontrast examination, arterial and venous phases), 50 ml on nonionic contrast agent was injected (4-4,5 ml/sec). We distinguished several types of ICA changes: stenosis more than 60% and 70%, critical stenosis, subocclusion (also with distal collapse), local occlusion.

Results: CTitical ICA stenosis was detected in 82 patients (26% of all observed cases); ICA changes with diffuse decrease of upper segments - in 20 cases (6,2% of cases). Among group of decreased diameter we saw subocclusion (18 patients) and local occlusion (2 patients). In the setting of local occlusion ICA contrast-enchanced through atypical ascending pharyngeal artery In patients with diffuse decrease of upper ICA segments all elements of circle of Wills were detected in 70% of cases. During surgery CTA results were confirmed, but atherosclerotic plaque extension was higher than observed at CT approximately at 10 mm.

Conclusion: we can refer critical stenosis, subocclusion and local occlusion to critical atherosclerotic ICA changes. The one should consider CTA limitations in differentiation of upper part of atherosclerotic plaque. In majority of cases decrease in ICA diameter was associated with severe atherosclerotic involvement and not with congenital changes CTA is necessary for preoperative assessment of carotid occlusive disease, especially in critical ICA changes.



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Ischemic strokes are still the worldwide problem with high mortality and morbidity. Carotid endarterectomy that is used for revascularization of changed artery required precise visualization of carotid arteries at extra- and intracranial level, assessment of intracranial circulation.



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