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Aim: was to study the impact of angiographic projection on patient and operator radiation dose during endovascular interventions aimed at diagnosing and treating cerebrovascular diseases.

Materials and methods: in experiment, radiation dose rate of phantom model (cGy?cm2/s) and equivalent dose rate from scattered radiation (mSv/h) measured in the area of conditional location of operator were studied when the angle of the X-ray tube was changed in modes of digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and fluoroscopy. Radiation dose rate of endovascular surgeon (mSv/h) was assessed during 12 cerebral angiography procedures and 15 neuro-interventions in general angiographic projections. Values of the kerma-area product (Gy?cm2), fluoroscopy time (min), operator exposure dose (µSv) during 87 procedures of endovascular occlusion of aneurysm of cavernous and supraclinoid sections of internal carotid arteries (ICA) were retrospectively analyzed to indirectly assess the effect of angiographic projection on patient and surgeon occupational dose. Interventions were divided into 2 groups depending on the location of detected aneurysm. The 1st group included 35 operations in the right ICA, the 2nd group included 53 operations in the left ICA.

Results: in experimental study, highest values of radiation dose rate of the phantom model were found in frontal projection with cranial angulation, lowest - in lateral and oblique projections; The highest average dose rates from scattered radiation in operator's area were found in left lateral projections whereas the smallest in right lateral projection in DSA mode and also in frontal and right lateral projections in fluoroscopy mode.

When studying doses of scattered radiation during neuro-interventional procedures, it was found that when the position of the X-ray tube changes from 0° in the direction of left lateral projection, an increase in the average dose rate of the operator in the DSA mode is up to 2,6 times, with fluoroscopy - up to 2,4 times. The equivalent dose rate in left lateral projection is up to 1.5 times higher than in right lateral projection. In left oblique projection, there is an increase in dose rate up to 2,3 times compared to right oblique projection.When comparing radiation exposure indicators during aneurysm embolization procedures, a significant increase in operator exposure doses is observed in group of interventions in the left ICA.

Conclusion: when performing neuro-interventional procedures, it is possible to achieve a significant reduction in radiation exposure to patient and operator without a significant loss in image quality along with maintaining optimal visualization of pathological changes by choosing angiographic projections with lower radiation doses.




Introduction: pathological tortuosity of internal carotid arteries (ICA) is widespread; its frequency in population varies within 18-34%. Currently, there are several approaches for the determination of indications for surgical intervention in pathological ICA tortuosity. The main criteria are hemodynamic changes in the arterial flow and the presence of neurological symptoms, so an informative preoperative examination is an integral part in treatment strategy determination in patients' subsequent treatment.

Aim: was to estimate the condition of carotid arteries and substance of the brain in isolated pathological tortuosity and in combination with stenotic lesions, based on results of CT angiography.

Materials and methods: we analyzed results of examination and treatment of 70 patients. Ultrasound and CT angiography of brachiocephalic arteries were performed on a Philips iCT 256-slice multislice computed tomograph. During CT angiography, a non-contrast study, arterial and venous phases of contrast enhancement were performed with an intravenous bolus injection of 50.0 ml of isoosmolar iodinated contrast-agent at 4-5 ml/sec.

Patients were divided into two groups: patients with isolated pathological carotid tortuosity (28 pts) and patients with a combination of carotid tortuosity and stenotic lesions (42 pts). We assessed the effect of carotid tortuosity on the severity of the brain tissue alterations using statistical analysis.

Results: a lesser severity of changes in the substance of the brain was noted in patients in the group with isolated pathological tortuosity of ICA. In 9 cases, we did not detect focal lesions; in 15 cases, small foci of microangiopathy and individual cerebrospinal fluid cysts were noted, in 4 patients, we noted areas and zones of cystic-glial changes. S- and C-shaped deformation became the most frequent variants of tortuosity; the formation of 3 saccular aneurysms (two true and one false) was revealed.

Manifestations of ischemic damage of the brain substance in the group of patients with a combination of ICA tortuosity and stenotic lesion were more pronounced. Thus, in 11 cases, zones and areas of cystic-glial changes were determined within the framework of past cerebrovascular accidents; in 20 patients, foci of microangiopathy expressed in varying degrees, as well as individual cerebrospinal fluid cysts, were noted. In 11 cases, no focal lesions were detected in the brain.

Statistical processing showed a correlation between the condition of carotid arteries and the presence of focal brain damage - in the group with combination of pathological tortuosity and stenosis of ICA, more pronounced chronic ischemic brain damage was detected (p=0,012).

Conclusion: CT-angiography was noted to be highly informative in assessment of condition of carotid arteries and brain substance in patients with isolated pathological tortuosity, as well as in combination with a stenotic lesion of internal carotid arteries. With a combination of pathological tortuosity and a stenosis in internal carotid arteries, data were obtained on a more pronounced damage of the brain substance. According to computed tomography, clinical manifestations of chronic cerebrovascular insufficiency were generally more pronounced compared to changes in the brain substance. However, there was a correlation between the increase in the degree of chronic cerebrovascular insufficiency and the aggravation of the state of the brain substance.



Aim: was to evaluate the effectiveness of carotid arterial revascularization by stenting of internal carotid arteries (ICA) in patients with a previous ischemic stroke.

Materials and methods: in FSBI «Treatment and rehabilitation center» of the Ministry of Health of Russia,104 patients on treatment and rehabilitation after previous ischemic stroke, underwent stenting of symptomatic atherosclerotic stenosis of the ICA. The average time since stroke was 67 days (from 28 to 273 days). ICA stenting was performed according to generally accepted standards with the mandatory use of intravascular protective devices against cerebral embolism. In most patients we used a filter protection system (77 observations), and for stenosis of more than 95% and in the presence of an unstable atherosclerotic plaque, a proximal defense system was used (27 patients). In some cases, if the situation required it, a combination of protective devices was used (5 observations). A few days before upcoming operation, all patients were evaluated for microcirculation and perfusion in brain tissue using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), followed by analysis of results and comparison with SPECT data in the postoperative period.

Results: when analyzing 30 days after stenting, there were no fatal outcomes. In one case (0.96%) after stenting of the subtotal stenosis of the ICA, a hemorrhagic stroke on the ipsilateral side developed on the fifth day. In another case, intraoperative embolism of the ophthalmic artery occurred on the side of the operation with partial loss of vision field.

In the long-term period (4 years and 7 months), the number of undesirable events was 2%. In one case (0.96%), the patient died of ischemic stroke on the ipsilateral side after 3 years and 2 months after stenting. In another case, patient after 1 year and 2 months had an ischemic stroke on the side of the operation. Thus, the total number of complications associated with ICA stenting (30-day period + long-term period) was 3.8%.

When evaluating results of stenting by the SPECT method, the state of cerebral perfusion was assessed using perfusion maps in two modes and by axial perfusion sections.

In all observations after stenting, improvement of cerebral perfusion was noticed, regardless of the side and severity of ICA stenosis and the presence of focal postischemic changes. Visually, perfusion sections show a general increase in cerebral blood perfusion (CBP), a decrease in one-sided focal deficiency of CBP . Same results were obtained for relative cortex perfusion (relCP) in four regions and in vascular basins.

Comparing results, obtained by the number of undesirable events (strokes, restenosis and death) with the four-year data of the analysis of the international CREST study, the complication rate in our group is significantly lower (3.8% versus 8.6% in the CREST stenting group and 8.4% in carotid endarterectomy group CREST).

Conclusion: carotid stenting is an effective method of treatment of atherosclerotic lesions of main cerebral arteries in patients with previous stroke. The effectiveness of this type of treatment is confirmed by a positive clinical result and with the help of modern diagnostic methods, in particular SPECT.



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18.   Volzhenin VE, Dolinina EG, Dontsov AE et al. The state of cerebral blood flow according to SPECT, MRI and MPA. Thes. doc. 2nd Congress of the Russian Society of Nuclear Medicine. Modern problems of nuclear medicine and pharmaceuticals. Obninsk, 2000; 174-175 [In Russ].



The report is about giant false aneurysm of an extracranial part of the left internal carotid artery (ICA) in a patient aged one year and nine months. The reason of the complexity of diagnostics in this case was that the dissection of the ICA with formation of false aneurysm imitated the peritonsillar abscess' clinic. We have not found any descriptions of a similar cases of patients at such an early age in modern literature.



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7.      Seerig M.M., Chueiri L., Jacques J. et alt. Bilateral Peritonsillar Abscess in an Infant: An Unusual Presentation of Sore Throat. Case Rep Otolaryngol. 2017; 2017: 467015.

8.      Mazur E, Czerwinska E, Korona-Gtowniak I, Grochowalska A, Koziot-Montewka M. Epidemiology, clinical history and microbiology of peritonsillar abscess. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2015 Mar; 34(3):549-54.  



Aim: was to analyze long-term results of carotid endarterectomy (CEA) in patients with unilateral lesion of the internal carotid artery (ICA), the lack of/or insignificant lesion on the contralateral side on statin therapy.

Materials and methods: for the period January 2009-December 2010, 262 CEA performed in 262 patients. Evaluated results of survival rate, stroke and myocardial infarction, condition of carotid arteries, effect of various factors on features of atherosclerotic lesions and effect of statin therapy on these processes.

Results: in late follow-up period - 245(93,5%) survivors. Patients were divided into groups: simvastatin - 60(24,5%) patients, atorvastatin - 134(54,7%) observations, rosuvastatin - 51(20,8%) cases. 14 patients died, data were obtained on the 13, average loss of 6.06%. The frequency of cardiovascular events leading to death is seven cases. Non-fatal stroke of any location - 5(1,9%) observations. The influence of hypertension (p=0,019), smoking (p=0,004), type 2 diabetes (p=0,03), dyslipidemia: hypercholesterolemia (p=0,05), hypertriglyceridemia (p=0,02), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) level is higher than normal (p=0,015), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) is below normal (p = 0,03) and other factors. Lowering cholesterol by 5,9% is marked in the atorvastatin group, maintaining at recommended values throughout the period from the initial selection in the rosuvastatin group (p = 0,0001). LDL cholesterol decreased by 19,1% in the mean value in the atorvastatin group (p = 0,0001), the increase of HDL level of 3,4% in the rosuvastatin group (p=0,02). Achievement of recommended levels of cholesterol was more often observed in the rosuvastatin group at 64,7% compared with simvastatin (p = 0,03). Risk factors influenced the incidence of restenosis ipsilateral side in 3 patients (1,2%). The greatest influence of risk factors was determined in the atorvastatin group (4,1%, p=0,001). Atorvastatin therapy stabilized the wall of the ICA 17,6% more often (p=0,05) and contralateral common carotid artery, leaving it intact at 84,6% (p=0,002) compared with other groups of statins.

Conclusion: the purpose of statin therapy depends on the severity of the atherosclerotic process the characteristics of the lipid profile and the need correction of risk factors. The most effect is provided by the group of synthetic statin above semisynthetic. Atorvastatin therapy is effective with moderate hypercholesterolemia; rosuvastatin prescribed with severe dyslipidemia.



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2.      AbuRahma A.F., Srivastava M., Stone P.A. Effects of Statins on Early and Late Clinical Outcomes of Carotid Endarterectomy and the Rate of Post-Carotid Endarterectomy Restenosis. J Am Coll Surg. 2015;220:481-488.

3.      Sillesen H., Amarenco P., Hennerici M.G., Callahan A., Goldstein L.B., Zivin J. et al. Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction in Cholesterol Levels Investigators. Atorvastatin reduces the risk of cardiovascular events in patients with carotid atherosclerosis: a secondary analysis of the Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction in Cholesterol Levels (SPARCL) trial. Stroke. 2008; 39: 3297-3302.

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5.      Perler B.A. The effect of statin medications on perioperative and long-term outcomes following carotid endarterectomy or stenting. Semin Vasc Surg. 2007; 20: 252-258.

6.      McGirt M.J., Perler B.A., Brooke B.S., Woodworth G.F., Coon A., Jain S. et al. 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors reduce the risk of perioperative stroke and mortality after carotid endarterectomy. J. Vasc Surg. 2005; 42: 829-836.

7.      Paraskevas K.I., Athyros V.G., Briana D.D., Kakafika A.I., Karagiannis A., and Mikhailidis, D.P. Statins exert multiple beneficial effects on patients undergoing percutaneous revascularization procedures. Curr Drug Targets. 2007; 8: 942-951.

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11.    Pokrovsky A.V., Beloyartsev D. F., Talibli O. L. Analysis of long-term results of eversion carotid endarterectomy. Angiology and vascular surgery. 2014; 20 (4): 100-108 [In Russ].

12.    Efthymios D. Avgerinos Rabih A., Abdallah Naddaf, Omar M. El-Shazly, Luke Marone, Michel S. Makaroun. Primary closure after carotid endarterectomy is not inferior to other closure techniques. Presented at the Vascular and Endovascular Surgery Society 2015 Summer Meeting, Chicago, Ill, June 17-20, 2015.

13.    Taylor A.J., Kent S.M., Flaherty P.J., Coyle L.C., Markwood T.T., and Vernalis, M.N. ARBITER: Arterial Biology for the Investigation of the Treatment Effects of Reducing Cholesterol: a randomized trial comparing the effects of atorvastatin and pravastatin on carotid intima medial thickness. Circulation. 2002; 106: 2055-2060.

14.    Taylor A.J., Sullenberger L.E., and Lee H.Y ARBITER 3: Atherosclerosis regression during open-label continuation of extended-release niacin following ARBITER 2. Circulation. 2005; 112: II-179.

15.    Jones P., Davidson M., Stein E. et al. STELLAR Study Group. Comparison of the efficacy and safety of rosuvastatin versus atorvastatin, simvastatin, and pravastatin across doses (STELLAR  Trial). Am. J. Cardiol. 2003; 92(2): 152-160.

16.    Crouse J.R. III, Raichlen J.S., Riley W.A. et al. Effect of rosuvastatin on progression of carotid intima-media thickness in low-risk individuals with subclinical atherosclerosis: the METEOR Trial. JAMA. 2007;297:1344-1353.

17.    Radak D., Tanaskovic S., Matic P., et al. Eversion Carotid Endarterectomy - Our Experience After 20 Years of Carotid Surgery and 9897 Carotid Endarterectomy Procedures. Ann. Vasc. Surg. 2012; 26(7): 924-928.

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19.    Sever P.S., Poulter N.R., Dahlof B. et al. Different Time Course for Prevention of Coronary and Stroke Events by Atorvastatin in the Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial-Lipid-Lowering Arm (ASCOT-LLA). Am J Cardiol. 2005; 96: 39-44.

20.    Paraskevas K.I., Hamilton G., Mikhailidis D.P. Statins: an essential component in the management of carotid artery disease. J Vasc Surg. 2007; 46: 373-386.



Internal carotid artery (ICA) pathological kinking considered to be one of the main causes of stroke. Aim of our study was to assess endovascular possibilities to manage this condition. Carotid stenting performed in 15 non-fixed human corpses with ICA kinking (6 - L-shaped, 5 - S-shaped, 4 - looping) under hydrodynamic monitoring.

It is shown that endovascular correction (stenting) of kinked ICA straightens the artery, considerably reduces pressure gradient, and increases volume of flow. At the same time carotid stenting, performed for ICA kinking, does not distress the vessel wall, in particular, it causes no significant intimal trauma. 




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Aim: was to assess computed tomography angiography (CTA) abilities in analysis of internal carotid artery (ICA) critical atherosclerotic lesions.

Material and method: for the period 2014-2016 - 321 patients underwent examination (ultrasound and CTA of brachiocephalic arteries) prior to surgical treatment of ICA occlusive disease. CTA was made on Philips iCT 256-slice (noncontrast examination, arterial and venous phases), 50 ml on nonionic contrast agent was injected (4-4,5 ml/sec). We distinguished several types of ICA changes: stenosis more than 60% and 70%, critical stenosis, subocclusion (also with distal collapse), local occlusion.

Results: CTitical ICA stenosis was detected in 82 patients (26% of all observed cases); ICA changes with diffuse decrease of upper segments - in 20 cases (6,2% of cases). Among group of decreased diameter we saw subocclusion (18 patients) and local occlusion (2 patients). In the setting of local occlusion ICA contrast-enchanced through atypical ascending pharyngeal artery In patients with diffuse decrease of upper ICA segments all elements of circle of Wills were detected in 70% of cases. During surgery CTA results were confirmed, but atherosclerotic plaque extension was higher than observed at CT approximately at 10 mm.

Conclusion: we can refer critical stenosis, subocclusion and local occlusion to critical atherosclerotic ICA changes. The one should consider CTA limitations in differentiation of upper part of atherosclerotic plaque. In majority of cases decrease in ICA diameter was associated with severe atherosclerotic involvement and not with congenital changes CTA is necessary for preoperative assessment of carotid occlusive disease, especially in critical ICA changes.



1.     John J. Ricotta, Ali AbuRahma, Enrico Ascher, Mark Eskandari, Peter Faries and Brajesh K. Lal. Washington, DC; Charleston, WV; Brooklyn, NY; Chicago, Ill; New York, NY; and Baltimore, Md Updated Society for Vascular Surgery guidelines for management of extracranial carotid disease. J Vasc Surg. 2011: Sep; 54(3):1-31.

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Aim: was to estimate the efficiency and safety of stenting of subtotal stenosis of internal carotid artery

Materials and methods: we analyzed data of 31 patients who underwent stenting of subtotal stenosis of internal carotid artery. Middle age was 68,2±6,9 yrs. Research included 23 males (74,2%). 28 patients (90,3%) had ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack in anamnesis. Asymptomatic patients (9,7%) in the pre-operative stage underwent single-photon emission computed tomography of the brain, which revealed the presence of subtotal stenosis of internal carotid artery complicated with ishemia. Stenting of internal carotid arteries were made with the help of embolic protection devices in all cases (100%), in 90,3% - with additional proximal protection. In 100% - predilatation of critical stenosis zones were performed. Two patients (6,4%) underwent simultaneous stenting of internal carotid artery and vertebral artery in 1 patient (3,2%) - stenting of internal carotid artery and subclavian artery The operative time was equal to the average 32,6±8,7 minutes. The results of endovascular interventions were assessed by the presence / absence of neurological symptoms during hospitalization and in the late postoperative period. Stent patency and the presence / absence of restenosis were determined by ultrasound, selective angiography of the brachiocephalic arteries. Before discharge in asymptomatic patients evaluated cerebral perfusion using single photon emission computed tomography

Results: successful stenting of subtotal stenosis of the internal carotid artery with blood flow restoration (TICI-3) achieved in 100% of cases. According to the single-photon emission computed tomography of the brain, performed before discharge in asymptomatic patients (9.7%) noted improvement in cerebral blood flow. During the observation period, which amounted to 11,6 ± 3,1 months, the new transient ischemic attacks or ischemic strokes were not observed, no deaths. According to the ultrasonic examination - stents in the internal carotid arteries are passable, with no signs of restenosis.

Conclusion: stenting of critical subtotal stenosis of the internal carotid artery is effective and safe. Application of the proximal cerebral protection can reduce the potential risk of embolism during stenting of subtotal stenosis of the internal carotid artery as it provides protection at all stages of the procedure. It is necessary to conduct large randomized studies to confirm the clinical efficacy and determine the indications for this kind of intervention in these group of patients. 



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The article presents the experience of stenting the internal carotid arteries (ICA) in 45 patients. The patients' age ranged from 49 to 78 years, on average 64.8 years. The degree of ICA stenosis ranged from 60% to 95%, on average 72.7 ± 7.2%. 28 (62.2%) patients had a history of acute cerebrovascular accident, 17 (37.7%) patients had cerebral symptoms of circulatory disorders. After 48 endovascular procedures, neurological complications developed in 3 (6.2%) cases: transient ischemic attack - in 2 (4.1%) patients, minor stroke - in one (2%) patient. Hospital mortality was 2.2%. In the remote period, 13 (28.8%) patients were examined. There were no myocardial infarctions and strokes.  





Ischemic strokes are still the worldwide problem with high mortality and morbidity. Carotid endarterectomy that is used for revascularization of changed artery required precise visualization of carotid arteries at extra- and intracranial level, assessment of intracranial circulation.



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