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Introduction: the main methods for diagnosing cardiac neoplasms, allowing to determine the localization, size, involvement of heart structures, to suggest the nature of the pathological process and to plan treatment tactics, are: echocardiography (EchoCG), contrast multispiral computed coronary angiography (MSCT CAG), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission computed tomography (PET CT). At the same time, any additional information about the pathological process can improve the quality of diagnosis and treatment. So, for example, selective coronary angiography (CAG), which in this case can be performed to clarify the coronary anatomy and exclude concomitant coronary atherosclerosis, in hands of attentive and experienced specialist of endovascular diagnostic and treatment methods can make a significant contribution to understanding the nature of blood supply of heart neoplasm, thereby bringing closer the formulation of the correct diagnosis and, ultimately, improving results of surgical treatment.

Aim: was to study the nature of blood supply of heart myxoma based on results of a detailed analysis of data of selective coronary angiography in patients with this pathology.

Material and methods: since 2005, 20 patients underwent surgery to remove heart myxoma. The average age of patients was 56,6 + 8,0 (43-74) years. According to data of ultrasound examination, sizes of myxomas ranged from 10 to 46 mm in width and from 15 to 71 mm in length (average size ? 25,6 ? 39,1 mm). In 2/3 of all cases (15 out of 20,75%), the fibrous part of the inter-atrial septum (fossa oval region) was the base of myxomas. In 8 of 20 (40%) cases, tumor prolapse into the left ventricle through structures of the mitral valve was noted in varying degrees. In order to exclude coronary pathology, CAG was performed in 14 cases, in the rest - MSCT CAG.

Results: of 14 patients with myxoma who underwent selective coronary angiography, 12 (85,7%) patients had distinct angiographic signs of vascularization. In all 12 cases, the sinus branch participated in the blood supply of myxoma, begins from the right coronary artery (RCA) in 10 cases: in 7 case it begins from proximal segment of the RCA and, in 3 cases, from the posterior-lateral branch (PLB) of the RCA. In one case, the source of blood supply of neoplasm was the sinus branch extending from PLB of dominant (left type) circumflex artery of the left coronary artery (PLB CxA LCA). In one case, the blood supply to the neoplasm involved branches both from the RCA and CxA, mainly from the left atrial branch of CxA. Moreover, in all 12 cases, sinus branch formed two branches: branch of sinus node itself and left atrial branch. It was the left atrial branch that was the source of blood supply of myxoma. Analysis of angiograms in patients with myxoma of LA showed that left atrial branch in terminal section formed a pathological vascularization in the LA projection, accumulating contrast-agent in the capillary phase (MBG 3-4). In addition to newly formed vascularization, lacunae of irregular shape were distinguished, the size of which varied from 2 to 8 mm along the long axis. In 8 cases, hypervascular areas with areas of lacunar accumulation of contrast-agent showed signs of paradoxical mobility and accelerated onset of venous phase. In two cases, there were distinct angiographic signs of arteriovenous shunt. In 2 cases (when the size of the myxoma did not exceed 15-20 mm according to EchoCG and CT), angiographic signs allowing to determine the presence of LA myxoma were not so convincing: there was no lacunar accumulation of contrast-agent; small (up to 10 mm) hypervascular areas were noticed, the capillary network of which stood out against the general background of uniform contrasting impregnation and corresponded to MBG grade 1-2.

Conclusion: according to our data, angiographic signs of vascularization of myxomas are detected in most cases with this pathology (85,7%). The source of blood supply, in the overwhelming majority of cases, is branch of coronary artery, which normally supplies the structure of the heart, on which the basement of the pathological neoplasm is located. The aforementioned angiographic signs characteristic of myxomas deserve the attention of specialists in the field of endovascular diagnosis and treatment and should be described in details in protocols of invasive coronary angiography.



1.     Петровский Б.В., Константинов Б.А., Нечаенко М.А. Первичные опухоли сердца. М.: Медицина, 1997; 152.

Petrovskiy BV, Konstantinov BA, Nechaenko MA. Primary heart tumors. M.: Medicina, 1997 [In Russ].

2.     Balci AY, Sargin M, Akansel S, et al. The importance of mass diameter in decision-making for preoperative coronary angiography in myxoma patients. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg. 2019; 28(1): 52-57.

3.     Omar HR. The value of coronary angiography in the work-up of atrial myxomas. Herz. 2015; 40(3): 442-446.

4.     Gupta PN, Sagar N, Ramachandran R, Rajeshekharan VR. How does knowledge of the blood supply to an intracardiac tumour help? BMJ Case Rep. 2019; 12(2): 225900.

5.     Marshall WHJr., Steiner RM, Wexler L. Tumor vascularity in left atrial myxoma demonstrated by selective coronary arteriography. Radiology. 1969; 93(4): 815-816.

6.     Lee SY, Lee SH, Jung SM, et al. Value of Coronary Angiography in the Cardiac Myxoma. Clin Anat. 2020; 33(6): 833-838.



Article presents a literature review on the role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of sacroiliac joints in the diagnosis of ankylosing spondylitis.

Aim: was to analyze domestic and foreign literature sources that reflect the state of the problem and aspects of radiodiagnostics of sacroiliac joints in patients with ankylosing spondylitis.

Materials and methods: article contains analysis of 29 literature sources of leading domestic and foreign scientific journals.

Results: for a reliable diagnosis of ankylosing spondylitis, the presence of x-ray confirmed sacroiliitis is a prerequisite. However, difficulties in confirming or absence of sings of sacroiliitis on radiography at the beginning of the disease leads to a delay in the diagnosis of ankylosing spondylitis, which is established for 5-10 years after first clinical signs of the disease. Magnetic resonance imaging allows us to evaluate changes in sacroiliac joints in early stages of the disease and prevent the development of significant structural changes that lead to early disability of patients. MR-symptoms of active inflammation of sacroiliac joints in ankylosing spondylitis include: edema of the bone marrow (ostitis) in subchondral parts of iliac bones and sacrum, edema of the capsule (capsulitis) and periarticular ligaments (enteritis) joint, as well as synovitis, accompanied by synovial effusion into the joint cavity. MR-symptoms of structural changes in sacroiliac joints in ankylosing spondylitis include: bone erosion, sclerosis, fat deposits of the bone marrow, bone bridges, ankyloses.

Conclusion: magnetic resonance imaging currently occupies a leading position in the early diagnosis of ankylosing spondylitis, which allows us to identify active inflammatory and structural changes in sacroiliac joints.



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13.   Rudwaleit M, Jurik AG, Hermann KG et al. Defining active sacroiliitis on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for classification of axial spondyloarthritis: a consensual approach by the ASAS / OMERACT MRI group. Ann. Rheum. Dis. 2009; 10: 1520–1527.

14.   Levshakova AV. Differential diagnosis of sacroiliitis. Radiologiya – praktika. 2012; 2: 39–44 [In Russ].

15.   Erdes ShF, Bochkova AG, Dubinina TV et al. Early diagnosis of ankylosing spondylitis. Nauchno-prakticheskaya revmatologiya. 2013; 51 (4): 365–367 [In Russ].

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19.   Dubinina TV, Erdes Sh. Inflammatory pain in the lower back in the early diagnosis of spondyloartritis. Nauchno-prakticheskaya revmatologiya. 2014; 4: 55–73 [In Russ].

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23.   Smirnov AV, Erdes ShF. Diagnosis of inflammatory changes in the axial skeleton in ankylosing spondylitis according to data of magnetic resonance imaging. Nauchno-prakticheskaya revmatologiya. 2016; 54 (1): 53–59[In Russ].

24.   Tyuhova EYu. Magnetic resonance imaging of the spine and sacroiliac joints in patients with spondyloartritis.Nauchno-prakticheskaya revmatologiya. 2012; 51 (2): 106–111 [In Russ].

25.   Levshakova AV, Bochkova AG, Bunchuk NV. Magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of sacroiliitis in patients with ankylosing spondylitis. Medicinskaya vizualizaciya. 2008; 2: 97–103 [In Russ].

26.   Rudwaleit M, Jurik AG, Hermann KG et al. Defining active sacroiliitis on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for classification of axial spondyloarthritis: a consensual approach by the ASAS/OMERACT MRI group. Ann Rheum Dis. 2009; 68 (10):1520–1527.

27.   Rudwaleit M, Landewe R, van der Heijde D et al. SpondyloArthritis international Society (ASAS) classification criteria for axial spondyloarthritis (Part II): Validation and final selection. Ann Rheum Dis. 2009; 68: 777–83.

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Introduction: development of software and hardware capabilities of modern computing systems has enabled three-dimensional (3D) modeling and 3D printing technology (medical prototyping) to become available for a wide range of healthcare specialists. Commercial software used for this purpose remains unavailable to private physicians and small institutions due to the high cost. However, there are freeware applications and affordable 3D printers that can also be used to create medical prototypes.

Aim: was to describe stages of creating of physical 3D models based on medical imaging data and to highlight main features of specialized software and to make an overview of main types of 3D printing used in medicine.

Material and methods: article describes process of creation of medical prototype, that can be divided on three main stages: 1) acquisition of medical imaging, obtained by ‘volumetric’ scanning methods (computed tomography (CT), magnetic-resonance imaging (MRI), 3D ultrasound (3D US)); 2) virtual 3D model making (on the basis of visualisation data) by segmentation, polygonal mesh extraction and correction; 3) 3D printing of virtual model by the chosen method of additive manufacturing, with or without post-processing.

Conclusion: medical prototypes with sufficient precision and physical properties are necessary for understanding of anatomical structure and surgical crew training and can be made with use of freely available software and inexpensive 3D printers.



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2.     Vukicevic M, Mosadegh B, Min J K, Little S H. Cardiac 3D printing and its future directions. JACC Cardiovasc. Imaging. 2017; 10 (2): 171–184.

3.     Meier LM, Meineri ·M, Hiansen JQ, Horlick EM. Structural and congenital heart disease interventions: the role of three-dimensional printing. Neth Heart J. 2017; 25 (2): 65–75.

4.     Witschey WR, Pouch AM, McGarvey JR, Ikeuchi K, Contijoch F, Levack MM, Yushkevick PA, Sehgal CM, Jackson BM, Gorman RC, Gorman JH. Three-dimensional ultrasound-derived physical mitral valve modeling. Ann. Thorac. Surg. 2014; 98 (2): 691–694.

5.     Vukicevic M, Puperi DS, Grande-Allen KJ, Little SH. 3D Printed Modeling of the Mitral Valve for Catheter-Based Structural Interventions. Ann. Biomed. Eng. 2017; 45 (2): 508–519.

6.     Parimi M, Buelter J, Thanugundla V, Condoor S, Parkar N, Danon S, King W. Feasibility and Validity of Printing 3D Heart Models from Rotational Angiography. Pediatr. Cardiol. 2018; 39 (4): 653–658.

7.     Abudayyeh I, Gordon B, Ansari MM, Jutzy K, Stoletniy L, Hilliard A. A practical guide to cardiovascular 3D printing in clinical practice: Overview and examples. J. Interv. Cardiol. 2018; 31 (3): 375–383.

8.     Ripley B, Levin D, Kelil T, Hermsen JL, Kim S, Maki JH, Wilson GJ. 3D printing from MRI Data: Harnessing strengths and minimizing weaknesses. J.of Magnetic Resonance Imaging. 2016; 45 (3): 1–11.

9.     Wang J, Coles-Black J, Matalanis G, Chuen J. Innovations in cardiac surgery: techniques and applications of 3D printing. J. 3D Print. Med. 2018; 2 (4): 179–186.

10.   Nagibovich OA, Svistov DV, Peleshok SA, Korovin AE, Gorodkov EV. Appliance of 3D printing technology in medicine. Klin. patofiz. 2017; 23 (3): 14–22 [In Russ].

11.   Bagaturiya GO. Prospects for the use of 3D printing in planning of surgical operations. Med.: teorija i praktika. 2016; 1 (1): 26–35 [In Russ].

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16.   Karyakin NN, Shubnyakov II, Denisov AO, Kachko A V, Alyev RV, Gorbatov RO. Regulatory concerns about medical device manufacturing using 3D printing: current state of the issue. Travmatol. i ortop. Ross. 2018; 24 (4): 129–136 [In Russ].



A clinical case of right atrial diverticulum in a 34-year-old patient is presented, which was suspected during echocardiography and confirmed during magnetic resonance imaging of the heart. Main main features of the anomaly and clinical and radiation features of the atrial diverticulum are presented in discussion. 



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