Website is intended for physicians




Acute cerebrovascular accident (CVA) is one of leading causes of death and disability in the population, both in Russia and around the world.

Aim: was to improve the effectiveness of the prevention of ischemic stroke (IS) in patients with asymptomatic stenosis of internal carotid arteries (ICA).

Materials and methods: this article is an analysis of the world literature on the subject of stroke in patients without focal or ocular symptoms (asymptomatic stenosis), medical and surgical (carotid stenting / carotid endarterectomy) correction of such stenotic lesions, postoperative complications, and the risk of stroke in the immediate and late postoperative period. We presented data on development of stroke, depending on the type of plaques, brain CT data, comorbidities in these patients, the method of surgical correction of stenosis. On the basis of international multicenter studies and experience of individual domestic and foreign clinics we performed evaluation of IS conservative anc surgical prophylaxis in this group of patients.

Results: performed analysis allowed to formulate recommendations on the tactics of treatment and examination of patients with asymptomatic internal carotid artery stenosis.



1.     Bokerija L.A., Gudkova R. G. Serdechno-sosudistaja hirurgija. 2010; Bolezni i vrozhdennye anomalii sistemy krovoobrashhenija. [Cardio-vascular surgery. 2010. Diseases and congenital abnormalities of blood circulation]. M.: NCSSH im. A.N. Bakuleva RAMN. 2011; 192 [In Russ].

2.     Pokrovskij A.V. Klinicheskaja angiologija. A.V. Pokrovskij. [Clinical Angiology]. Moscow; 2004;1; 808. [In Russ]. 

3.     Chernjavskij A.M. Programma bor'by s insul'tom, prehodjashhimi narushenijami mozgovogo krovoobrashhenija i discirkuljatornymi jencefalopatijami: metod. rekomendacii A.M.Chernjavskij, T.E.Vinogradova. [The program for prevention of stroke, TIA and encephalopathy: recommendations]. Novosibirsk; 2002;17. [In Russ].

4.     Go A.S., Mozaffarian D., Roger V.L. et al; on behalf of the American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee. Heart disease and stroke statistics - 2014 update: a report from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2014;129:e28-e292.

5.     Kleindorfer D., Panagos P, Pancioli A., et al. Incidence and short-term prognosis of transient ischemic attack in a population-based study. Stroke. 2005; 36:720-723.

6.     Suslina Z.A. Ocherki angionevrologii. [Angionevrology contexts] . Moscow: 2005; 126. [In Russ].

7.     Leljuk V.G., Leljuk S.Je. Cerebral'nyj rezerv pri ateroskleroticheskom porazhenii brahiocefal'nyh arterij. Jetjudy sovremennoj ul'trazvukovoj diagnostiki. [Mechanisms of development of cerebral vascular compensation due to atherosclerotic lesions of cerebral arteries]. Kiev; 2001; 4p. [In Russ].

8.     Nacional'nye rekomendacii po vedeniju pacientov s zabolevanijami brahiocefal'nyh arterij. Rossijskij soglasitel'nyj dokument. [National recommendations for treatment of patients with cerebrovascular disorders]. Angiologija i sosudistaja hirurgija. 2013; 19 (2): 70. [In Russ].

9.     Committee for the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. Special report from the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. Classification of cerebrovascular diseases III. Stroke. 1990;21:637-76.

10.   Endarterectomy for asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis. Executive Committee for the Asymptomatic Carotid Atherosclerosis Study. JAMA. 1995;273(18): 1421-8.

11.   Halliday A., Harrison M.. Hayter E. et al. 10-year stroke prevention after successful carotid endarterectomy for asymptomatic stenosis (ACST-1): a multicentre randomised trial. Lancet. 2010;376(9746): 1074-84.

12.   Chambers B.R. Donnan G.A. Carotid endarterectomy for asymptomatic carotid stenosis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005(4):CD001923.

13.   Barnett H.J., Meldrum H.E., Eliasziw M. North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial collaborators. The appropriate use of carotid endarterectomy. CMAJ. 2002; 166(9):1169-79.

14.   Inzitari D., Eliasziw M., Gates P et al. The causes and risk of stroke in patients with asymptomatic internal-carotid-artery stenosis. North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial Collaborators. N Engl. J. Med. 2000;342(23): 1693-700.

15.   Chaturvedi S., Bruno A., Feasby T. et al. Carotid endarterectomy an evidence-based review: report of the Therapeutics and Technology Assessment Subcommittee of the  AmericanAcademy of Neurology. Neurology. 2005;65(6):794-801.

16.   Pahigiannis К., Kaufmann P Koroshetz W. Carotid intervention: is it warranted in asymptomatic individuals if risk factors are aggressively managed? Stroke. 2014;45(3):e40-l.

17.   Abbott A.L. Medical (nonsurgical) intervention alone is now best for prevention of stroke associated with asymptomatic severe carotid stenosis: results of a systematic review and analysis. Stroke. 2009;40(10):e573-83.

18.   Spence J.D. Tamayo A. Lownie SP et al. Absence of microemboli on transcranial Doppler identifies low-risk patients with asymptomatic carotid stenosis. Stroke. 2005;36(ll):2373-8.

19.   Spence J.D. Coates V., Li H. et al. Effects of intensive medical therapy on microemboli and cardiovascular risk in asymptomatic carotid stenosis. Arch Neurol. 2010;67(2): 180-6.

20.   Markus H., King A., Shipley al. Asymptomatic embolisation for prediction of stroke in the Asymptomatic Carotid Emboli Study (ACES): a prospective observational study. LancetNevrol. 2010; 9:663-71.

21.   Kakkos S.K., Sabetai M., Tegos T. et al. Silent embolic infarcts on computed tomography brain scans and risk of ipsilateral hemispheric events in patients with asymptomatic internal carotid artery stenosis. J. Vasc. Surg. 2009;49;903-909.

22.   Hougaku H., Matsumoto M., Handa N. et al. Asymptomatic carotid lesions and silent cerebral infarction. Stroke. 1994;25:566-70.

23.   Tegos T.J., Sabetai M.M., Nicolaides A.N. et al. Patterns of brain computed tomography infarction and carotid plaque echogenicity. J. Vasc. Surg. 2001;33:334-9.

24.   Hashimoto H., Tagaya M., Niki H. Htani H. Computer-assisted analysis of heterogeneity on В-mode imaging predicts instability of asymptomatic carotid plaque. Cerebrovasc. Dis. 2009;28:357-64.

25.   Liapis С., Kakisis J., Kostakis A. Carotid Stenosis. Factors Affecting Symptomatology. Stroke. 2001; 32:2782-2786.

26.   Nicolaides А., Kakkos S., Kyriacou E. et al. Asymptomatic internal carotid artery stenosis and cerebrovascular risk stratification. J.Vasc. Surg. 2010;52:1486-96.

27.   Yi-Ning Qian, Yong-Ting Luo, Hong-Xia Duan et al. Adhesion Molecule CD146 and its Soluble Form Correlate Well with Carotid Atherosclerosis and Plaque Instability. CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics 2014; 20:438-445.

28.   Jones C.B., SaneD.C., Herrington D.M. Matrix metalloproteinases: a review of their structure and role acute coronary syndrome. Cardiovasc. Res. 2003,59: 812-823. 

29.   Carlos T.M., Harlan J.M. Leukocyte-endothelial adhesion molecules. Blood. 1994;84:2068-2101.

30.   Inoue M., Ishida T., Yasuda T., et al. Endothelial cell-selective adhesion molecule modulates atherosclerosis through plaque angiogenesis and monocyte-endothelial interaction. Microvasc. Res. 2010;80:179-187.

31.   McEver R.P Selectins: lectins that initiate cell adhesion under flow. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2002;14:581-586.

32.   Hwang S.J., Ballantyne C.M., Sharrett A.R., et al. Circulating adhesion molecules VCAM-1, ICAM-1, and E-selectin in carotid atherosclerosis and incident coronary heart disease cases: the Atherosclerosis Risk In Communities (ARIC) study. Circulation. 1997,96:4219-4225.

33.   Pelisek J., Rudelius M., Zepper P., et al. Multiple biological predictors for vulnerable carotid lesions. Cerebrovasc. Dis. 2009;28:601-610.

34.   Abbott A.L., Paraskevas K.I., Kakkos S.K. et al. Systematic Review of Guidelines for the Management of Asymptomatic and Symptomatic Carotid Stenosis. Stroke. 2015 Nov;46(11):3288-301.

35.   Goldstein L.B. Bushnell C.D. Adams RJ. et al. Guidelines for the primary prevention of stroke: a guideline for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke. 2011 ;42(2): 517-84.

36.   Brott T.G., Hobson 2nd R.W. Howard G. et al. Stenting versus endarterectomy for treatment of carotid-artery stenosis. N. Engl. J.Med. 2010;363(1): 11-23.

37.   Voeks J.H., Howard G., Ronbin G.S, Malas M.B et al. Age and outcomes after carotid stenting and endarterectomy: the carotid revascularization endarterectomy versus stenting trial. Stroke. 2011;42( 12):3484-90.

38.   Nallamothu B.K., Lu M., Rogers M.A. et al. Physician specialty and carotid stenting among elderly medicare beneficiaries in the United States. Arch. Intern. Med. 2011; 171 (20): 1804-10. 

39.   Gowri R., Denish M., Nira H. et al. Management Strategies for Asymptomatic Carotid Stenosis. Ann. Intern. Med. 2013;158:676-685.

40.   Pahigiannis К., Kaufmann P., Koroshetz W. Carotid intervention: is it warranted in asymptomatic individuals if risk factors are aggressively managed? Stroke. 2014;45(3):e40-l. (АНГИОЛОГИЯ.ру) - портал о диагностике и лечении заболеваний сосудистой системы