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Abstract:

Introduction: basilar artery thrombosis (BAT) is the cause of about 1% of ischemic strokes (IS). About 27% of strokes in posterior circulation are associated with BAT. Mortality in BAT without recanalization reaches 85-95%. In 80.7% of patients with BAT at the onset of disease a decrease in level of consciousness is observed, in 34% of them – coma.

Aim: was to show the possibility of performing thrombectomy (TE) in patients with BAT and reduced level of consciousness as the only effective way to prevent death in this pathology.

Materials and methods: two case reports of successful TE from basilar artery in patients with IS and decrease in level of wakefulness to coma, are presented.

Results: article describes two successful cases of TE in patients with angiographically confirmed BAT and decrease in the level of consciousness to moderate coma at the onset of disease. In two presented patients, TE made a complete restoration of BA blood flow. Good clinical outcomes were noted in both patients by 90th day of disease (modified Rankin scale 0-2 points). The Rivermead mobility index at discharge from hospital was 14 points, and the Bartel index by 90th day – complete independence from others in everyday life (from 90 to 100 points), and that once again indicates that TE in BAT is not only a life-saving procedure, but significantly improves functional and clinical outcomes of disease.

Conclusions: basilar artery thrombosis is a life-threatening condition that requires urgent reperfusion therapy as the only effective method of treatment. Endovascular treatment for basilar artery thrombosis should be considered in all patients, regardless the decrease in the level of consciousness at the onset of disease, because thrombectomy is a life-saving procedure.

  

 

References 

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https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK532241/

2.     Ekker MS, Boot EM, Singhal AB, et al. Epidemiology, aetiology, and management of ischaemic stroke in young adults. Lancet Neurol. 2018; 17(9): 790-801.

https://doi.org/10.1016/S1474-4422(18)30233-3

3.     Ikram A, Zafar A. Basilar Artery Infarct. In: StatPearls. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; August 10, 2020. Available at:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK551854/

4.     Gory B, Mazighi M, Labreuche J, et al. Predictors for Mortality after Mechanical Thrombectomy of Acute Basilar Artery Occlusion. Cerebrovasc Dis. 2018; 45(1-2): 61-67.

https://doi.org/10.1159/000486690

5.     Writing Group for the BASILAR Group, Zi W, Qiu Z, et al. Assessment of Endovascular Treatment for Acute Basilar Artery Occlusion via a Nationwide Prospective Registry. JAMA Neurol. 2020; 77(5): 561-573.

https://doi.org/10.1001/jamaneurol.2020.0156

6.     Bracard S, Ducrocq X, Mas JL, et al. Mechanical thrombectomy after intravenous alteplase versus alteplase alone after stroke (THRACE): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet Neurol. 2016; 15(11): 1138-1147.

https://doi.org/10.1016/S1474-4422(16)30177-6

7.     Liu Z, Liebeskind DS. Basilar Artery Occlusion and Emerging Treatments. Semin Neurol. 2021; 41(1): 39-45.

https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0040-1722638

8.     Powers WJ, Rabinstein AA, Ackerson T, et al. Guidelines for the Early Management of Patients With Acute Ischemic Stroke: 2019 Update to the 2018 Guidelines for the Early Management of Acute Ischemic Stroke: A Guideline for Healthcare Professionals From the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke. 2019; 50(12): 344-418.

https://doi.org/10.1161/STR.0000000000000211

9.     Baik SH, Park HJ, Kim JH, et al. Mechanical Thrombectomy in Subtypes of Basilar Artery Occlusion: Relationship to Recanalization Rate and Clinical Outcome. Radiology. 2019; 291(3): 730-737.

https://doi.org/10.1148/radiol.2019181924

10.   Weber R, Minnerup J, Nordmeyer H, et al. Thrombectomy in posterior circulation stroke: differences in procedures and outcome compared to anterior circulation stroke in the prospective multicentre REVASK registry. Eur J Neurol. 2019; 26(2): 299-305.

https://doi.org/10.1111/ene.13809

11.   Kang DH, Jung C, Yoon W, et al. Endovascular Thrombectomy for Acute Basilar Artery Occlusion: A Multicenter Retrospective Observational Study. J Am Heart Assoc. 2018; 7(14): 009419.

https://doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.118.009419

12.   Liu X, Dai Q, Ye R, et al. Endovascular treatment versus standard medical treatment for vertebrobasilar artery occlusion (BEST): an open-label, randomised controlled trial. Lancet Neurol. 2020; 19(2): 115-122.

https://doi.org/10.1016/S1474-4422(19)30395-3

13.   Potter JK, Clemente JD, Asimos AW. Hyperdense basilar artery identified on unenhanced head CT in three cases of pediatric basilar artery occlusion. Am J Emerg Med. 2021; 42: 221-224.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajem.2020.11.055

 

Abstract:

Aim: was to develop a compleх ultrasound assessment of atherosclerotic plaque instability in correlation with morphological evaluation.

Material and methods: research included 121 patients with stenosis of left/right internal carotic artery (ICA) of 50% and more (due to NASCET scale): 80 men and 41 women, mean age 56,0 years. All patients underwent standart and contrast-enhanced ultrasonic scanning (CEUS), bilateral duplex monitoring of cerebral blood flow with registration of microembolic signals (MES). All patients in period up to 3 days after hospitalization - underwent carotid endarterectomy with histological examination of atheroscleroitc plaque.

Results: analysis of relationship between ultrasound and histological characteristics showed a moderate association between the intensity of contrast agent accumulation and the degree of plaque vascularization (Cramer's V 0,529; p<<0,000;) number of lipofages (Cramer's V 0,569; p<<0,001). There were no significant differences between the degree of plaque vascularization and the degree of plaque stenosis (p<0,05). We revealed significant differences between the number of MES and the intensity of atherosclerotic plaque blood supply (<<0,001).

Discussions: intensive accumulation of contrast agent in a plaque is associated with the process of angiogenesis and inflammation, and contrast-enhanced ultrasound examination of the plaque is promising for assessing its instability and the possible risk of developing cerebral vascular complications. Neovascularization intensity detected by contrast-enhanced ultrasound is associated with the number of detected microparticles in the cerebral blood flow, and does not depend on the degree of stenosis.

Conclusions: method of comprehensive assessment using CEUS and Doppler detection of microembolic particles can be effective in stratifying the risk of possible ischemic stroke in asymptomatic patients, for optimizing indications for surgical treatment of atherosclerotic plaque, and evaluating the effectiveness of lipid-lowering and statin therapy.

  

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Abstract:

The review is devoted to possibilities of ultrasound and functional diagnostic methods in the diagnosis of ischemic stroke of unknown etiology. Main causes of cryptogenic ischemic stroke are highlighted in the article. Advances in high resolution ultrasound of extracranial and intracranial vessels and of the heart, prolonged heart rhythm monitoring are instrumental techniques to identify arterial and cardiac hidden causes of stroke. We reviewed literature, on the basis of available data, designed a diagnostic algorithm for patients with patent foramen ovale (PFO) and risk of embolism from atherosclerotic plaque. 

 

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