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Introduction: basilar artery thrombosis (BAT) is the cause of about 1% of ischemic strokes (IS). About 27% of strokes in posterior circulation are associated with BAT. Mortality in BAT without recanalization reaches 85-95%. In 80.7% of patients with BAT at the onset of disease a decrease in level of consciousness is observed, in 34% of them – coma.

Aim: was to show the possibility of performing thrombectomy (TE) in patients with BAT and reduced level of consciousness as the only effective way to prevent death in this pathology.

Materials and methods: two case reports of successful TE from basilar artery in patients with IS and decrease in level of wakefulness to coma, are presented.

Results: article describes two successful cases of TE in patients with angiographically confirmed BAT and decrease in the level of consciousness to moderate coma at the onset of disease. In two presented patients, TE made a complete restoration of BA blood flow. Good clinical outcomes were noted in both patients by 90th day of disease (modified Rankin scale 0-2 points). The Rivermead mobility index at discharge from hospital was 14 points, and the Bartel index by 90th day – complete independence from others in everyday life (from 90 to 100 points), and that once again indicates that TE in BAT is not only a life-saving procedure, but significantly improves functional and clinical outcomes of disease.

Conclusions: basilar artery thrombosis is a life-threatening condition that requires urgent reperfusion therapy as the only effective method of treatment. Endovascular treatment for basilar artery thrombosis should be considered in all patients, regardless the decrease in the level of consciousness at the onset of disease, because thrombectomy is a life-saving procedure.




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9.     Baik SH, Park HJ, Kim JH, et al. Mechanical Thrombectomy in Subtypes of Basilar Artery Occlusion: Relationship to Recanalization Rate and Clinical Outcome. Radiology. 2019; 291(3): 730-737.

10.   Weber R, Minnerup J, Nordmeyer H, et al. Thrombectomy in posterior circulation stroke: differences in procedures and outcome compared to anterior circulation stroke in the prospective multicentre REVASK registry. Eur J Neurol. 2019; 26(2): 299-305.

11.   Kang DH, Jung C, Yoon W, et al. Endovascular Thrombectomy for Acute Basilar Artery Occlusion: A Multicenter Retrospective Observational Study. J Am Heart Assoc. 2018; 7(14): 009419.

12.   Liu X, Dai Q, Ye R, et al. Endovascular treatment versus standard medical treatment for vertebrobasilar artery occlusion (BEST): an open-label, randomised controlled trial. Lancet Neurol. 2020; 19(2): 115-122.

13.   Potter JK, Clemente JD, Asimos AW. Hyperdense basilar artery identified on unenhanced head CT in three cases of pediatric basilar artery occlusion. Am J Emerg Med. 2021; 42: 221-224.



Introduction: up to the present day, there were no published multicenter randomized researches, that could compare combined concept of thrombectomy, including different methods of stent-retrievers traction with elements of aspiration and thrombolysis. There is no data on the effect of embolic complications after extraction of thrombus from cerebral arteries on outcomes of treatment.

Aim: was to increase the effectiveness of treatment of patients with ischemic stroke basing on a comparison of results of various methods of endovascular thrombectomy from cerebral vessels and intravenous thrombolysis, and on the base of assessment of effect of distal embolism on treatment outcomes in acute period of ischemic stroke.

Materials and methods: we carried out statistical analysis of results of different methods of thrombectomy in 75 patients and intravenous thrombolysis in 75 patients in acute phase of ischemic stroke. Effect of embolic complications after thrombectomy on outcomes of treatment of ischemic stroke was determined.

Results: groups of patients were comparable in age, neurological deficit, sex, localization and stroke subtype. The first group is burdened by the proportion of documented cerebral artery occlusion, diabetes mellitus and ischemic stroke in anamnesis. Differences in deaths and disability rates were not reliable. Thrombectomy demonstrated neurological deficit regression at all evaluation intervals, as well as the superiority of 2 times at achievement of functionally independent outcome in comparison with intravenous thrombolysis group.

Conclusions: a concept to thrombectomy, that supposes different methods of use of stent-retrievers and aspiration demonstrates better functional outcomes in treatment of ischemic stroke in the acute phase compared with intravenous thrombolysis. Embolic complications of reperfusion treatment adversely affect ischemic stroke outcomes and should be considered as a factor requiring minimization.



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Introduction: among patients with ischemic stroke (IS), more than 17% has atrial fibrillation (AF). The active application of aspiration thrombectomy (AT), in addition to thrombolytic therapy (TLT), can significantly improve functional outcome, prognosis and survival of patients with IS. The main method of preventing of IS in patients with nonvalvular AF today is still an anticoagulant therapy, but percutaneous transcatheter occlusion of the left atrium appendage (LAA) can be an alternative method, especially if anticoagulant therapy is contraindicated or ineffective.

Aim: was to demonstrate results of a complex staged treatment of an age-related patient with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation, complicated by the development of cardioembolic ischemic stroke while taking anticoagulants.

Material and methods: a clinical observation of a 81-year-old patient delivered to the hospital with a clinical manifestation of ischemic stroke in the “therapeutic window”, with a history of persistent AF and taking anticoagulants, is presented. After conservative therapy - a regression of neurological symptoms was achieved. Three days after - negative dynamics in the clinical picture with development of aphasia and right-sided hemiplegia. Multispiral computed tomography with contrast (MSCT-A): occlusion of M2 segment of the left middle cerebral artery (MCA). Patient underwent aspiration thrombectomy with complete restoration of blood flow and regression of neurological symptoms. After 2 months from the episode of IS, patient underwent implantation of occlude in the left atrial appendage as a prophylaxis of re-embolism, followed by the abolition of warfarin.

Results: a senile patient returned to normal life and self-care (assessed using the modified Rankin scale 1). During next 13 months patient had no major adverse cardiac events (MACE) or significant bleeding and all that shows that occlusion of LAA is effective.

Conclusions: in the early period of ischemic stroke, isolated aspiration thrombectomy is the operation of choice in patients with atrial fibrillation and contraindication for thrombolytic therapy, and endovascular occlusion of the left atrial appendage can be the method of choice for secondary prevention of ischemic stroke. Further studies are required to assess applicability and reproducibility of the approach we have described in routine clinical practice.



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The article presents an analysis of the choice of strategy for the treatment of ischemic stroke in the acute period, based on literature review.

Aim: was to develop the concept of effective thromboextraction (TE), based on the evaluation of factors influencing results of reperfusion treatment of ischemic stroke (IS), methods of endovascular restoration of cerebral blood flow

Materials and methods: meta-analysis of 44 sources of domestic and foreign literature is performed. The analysis of factors limiting the effectiveness of various reperfusion approaches and the analysis of modern methods of thrombectomy are performed.

Results: it is established, that SMAT (Solumbra) and PROTECT techniques have an advantage in comparison with aspiration approaches to thrombectomy in reducing the period to full reperfusion; methods with temporary occlusion of the source vessel (BGC) SAVE and PROTECT significantly reduce the risk of stroke spread to new vascular areas of the brain and increase the frequency of successful recanalization.

Conclusion: at present time, the PROTECT is the most effective technique in the frequency of successful recanalization, the degree and speed of achieved reperfusion, as well as in the prevention of distal embolization. Extrapolation of experience and principles from other sections of interventional radiology, development of new methods and strategies of brain reperfusion, depending on the morphology of thromboembolism, its size, localization and extent may contribute to improving results of endovascular treatment of ischemic stroke.



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43.    Qureshi AI, Siddiqui AM, Suri MF. et al. Aggressive mechanical clot disruption and low-dose intra-arterial third-generation thrombolytic agent for ischemic stroke: a prospective study. Neurosurgery 2002; 51: 1319-1329.

44.    von Gadow N., Nikoubashman O., Freiherr J. et al. Endovascular stroke treatment now and then-procedural and clinical effectiveness and safety of different mechanical thrombectomy techniques over time. Quant Imaging Med Surg. 2017 Feb; 7(1): 1-7.




Aim: was to assess efficiency of mechanical thrombectomy using stent-retriever pREset in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS).

Materials and methods: study included 27 patients with AIS. The average age of patients was 66 years, female - 12(44,4%). The average NIHSS was 20. Occlusion of middle cerebral artery (MCA) was observed in 21(77,8%) patients, internal carotid artery (ICA) - 4 patients, basilar artery - 2 patients.

Results: effective recovery of cerebral blood flow (TICI2b-3) was achieved in 22 patients (81,5%). The frequency of distal embolisms was 11,1%. The frequency of symptom hemorrhagic transformation was 7,4%. A favorable neurological outcome (mRs 0-2) was observed in 29,6% of patients, mortality was 25,9%.

Conclusions: the use of stent-retriever pREset allows to efficiently restore blood flow during occlusion of large cerebral arteries.



1.      Powers W., Rabinstein A., Ackerson T., et al. 2018 Guidelines for the early management of patients with acute ischemic stroke a guideline for healthcare professionals from the American heart association/American stroke association. Stroke. 2018; (49): DOI 10.1161/ STR.0000000000000158.

2.      Savello A.V., Voznyuk I.A., Svistov D.V. Vnutrisosudistoe lechenie ishemicheskogo insul'ta v ostrejshem periode (klinicheskie rekomendacii) [Intravascular treatment of ischemic stroke in the acute period (clinical recommendations)]. Sankt-Peterburg. 2015; [In Russ].

3.      Volodyuhin M.YU., Hasanova D.R., Dyomin T.V., i dr. Vnutriarterial'naya reperfuzionnaya terapiya u pacientov s ostrym ishemicheskim insul'tom [Intraarterial reperfusion therapy in patients with acute ischemic stroke.]. Medicinskij sovet. 2015; (10): 6-11 [In Russ].

4.      Krylov V.V., Savello A.V., Volodyuhin M.YU. Rentgenehdovaskulyarnoe lechenie ostrogo ishemicheskogo insul'ta [Endovascular treatment of acute ischemic stroke.]. Rukovodstvo. Moskva. 2017; 120 s [In Russ].

5.      Schwaiger B., Kober F., Gersing A., et al. The pREset stent retriever for endovascular treatment of stroke caused by MCA occlusion: safety and clinical outcome. Clin Neuroradiol. 2016; (26): 47-55.

6.      Machi P., Jourdan F., Ambard D., et. al. Experimental evaluation of stent retrievers mechanical properties and effectiveness. J. Neurolntervent. Surg. 2016; (0): 1-7.

7.      Prothmann S., Schwaiger B., Gersing A., et al. Recanalization of Thrombo-Embolic Ischemic Stroke with pREset (ARTESp): the impact of occlusion time on clinical outcome of directly admitted and transferred patients. J. Neuro. Intervent. Surg. 2017; (9): 817-822.

8.      Shams T., Zaidat O., Yavagal D., et al. Society of Vascular and Interventional Neurology (SVIN) Stroke Interventional Laboratory Consensus (SILC) criteria: A 7M management approach to developing a stroke interventional laboratory in the era of stroke thrombectomy for large vessel occlusions. Intervent. Neurol. 2016; (5): 1-28.

9.      Seker F., Pfaff J., Wolf M., et al. Correlation of thrombectomy maneuver count with recanalization success and clinical outcome in patients with ischemic stroke. Am. J. Neuroradiol. 2017; (38): 1368-1371.

10.    Mokin M., Nagesh S., Ionita C., et al. Comparison of modern stroke thrombectomy approaches using an in vitro cerebrovascular occlusion model. Am. J. Neuroradiol. 2016; (36): 547-551.

11.    Raymond J., Ghostine J., Khoury N., et al. Endovascular interventions for acute stroke: past practice and current research. J. Neurolntervent.Surg. 2017; (9): 1-4.



Aim: was to optimize treatment of patients with acute myocardial infarction without significant stenotic lesions of coronary arteries.

Materials and methods: authors present a clinical case of treatment of patient, who was admitted in few hours from onset of myocardial infarction. At first-stage, patient underwent manual vacuum thrombectomy, and it revealed the absence of significant stenotic lesions of coronary arteries. Patient underwent coronary angiography, left ventriculography, optical-coherence tomography of the infarct-dependent artery

Results: in this clinical case the cause of myocardial infarction in patient without significant stenotic coronary lesions was the presence of intramural fibrecalcific plaque without signs of instability

Conclusions: according to authors, in order to reduce the incidence of re-thrombosis of coronary arteries in patients with myocardial infarction without stenotic lesions of coronary arteries, it is recommended to perform optical-coherence tomography to reveal unstable atherosclerotic plaque; in such cases it may be warranted stenting of coronary artery.



1.      Sidel'nikov A.V., Chernysheva I.E., Koledinskij A.G.. Sravnitel'nyj analiz ehffektivnosti primeneniya tromboliticheskih preparatov: poisk prodolzhaetsya [Comparative analysis of efficacy of thrombolytic therapy: further search]. Mezhdunarodnyj zhurnal intervencionnoj kardioangiologii. 2014, 39:48-56 [In Russ].

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3.      Reynolds H. R. Myocardial infarction without obstructive coronary artery disease. Current Opinion in Cardiology. 2012, 27:655-660.

4.      Widimsky P., Stellova B., Groch L. et al. Prevalence of normal coronary angiography in the acute phase of suspected ST-elevation myocardial infarction: Experience from the PRAGUE studies; on behalf of the PRAGUE Study Group Investigators. Can J Cardiol. 2006; 22(13): 1147-1152.

5.      Da Costa A., Isaaz K., Faure E. et al. Clinical characteristics, aetiological factors and long-term prognosis of myocardial infarction with an absolutely normal coronary angiogram; a 3-year follow-up study of 91 patients. Eur Heart J. 2001; 22(16): 1459-1465.

6.      Jamil G., Jamil M., Abbas A. et al. «Lone aspiration thrombectomy» without stenting in young patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction - Am J Cardiovasc Dis. 2013; 3(2):71-78.

7.      Escaned J, Echavarrna-Pinto M, Gorgadze T et al. Safety of lone thrombus aspiration without concomitant coronary stenting in selected patients with acute myocardial infarction. EuroIntervention. 2013;8: 1149-1156.

8.      Talarico G. P., Burzotta F., Trani C. et al. Thrombus Aspiration without Additional Ballooning or Stenting to Treat Selected Patients with ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction. J Invasive Cardiol. 2010; 22(10): 489-492.

9.      Berger J.S., Elliott L., Gallup D. et al. Sex differences in mortality following acute coronary syndromes. JAMA. 2009; 302(8): 874-882.

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13.    Bentzon J. F., Otsuka F., Virmani R., Falk E. Mechanisms of Plaque Formation and Rupture. Circ Res. 2014; 114: 1852-1866.

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18.    Lam M. K., Sen H., Tandjung K. et al. Clinical Outcome of Patients With Implantation of Second-Generation Drug-Eluting Stents in the Right Coronary Ostium: Insights From 2-Year Follow-up of the TWENTE Trial/ Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions 2015; 85:524-531.


Aim: was to show possibilities of endovascular methods of treatment in patients with acute ischemic stroke in endovascular operation-room of cardiovascular surgical department.

Materials and methods: we present two case reports of treatment of patients with acute ischemic stroke, who were admitted to neurological department during first hours from onset.

Patients underwent CT perfusion, CT angiography of cerebral arteries. For blood-flow restoration, patients underwent thrombectomy

Results: thrombectomy from occluded artery was successful in both cases, that leaded to better recovery of neurological status.

Conclusions: wide application of endovascular techniques for restoration of cerebral blood flow in patients with ischemic stroke in the early hours of the onset of the disease, can lead to a more prosperous clinical outcomes, more rapid and complete recovery of the patient. Important is the presence of specialized personnel with appropriate skills and a wide spectrum of endovascular instruments.  



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3.    Varakin Ju.A. Jepidemiologicheskie aspekty profilaktiki narushenij mozgovogo krovoobrashhenija. [Epidemiological aspects of the stroke prevention]. Nervnye bolezni. 2005; 2: 4-9 [In Russ].

4.    Hripun A.V., Malevannyj M.V. i soavt. Pervyj opyt oblastnogo sosudistogo centra ROKB po jendovaskuljarnomu lecheniju ostorogo narushenija mozgovogo krovoobrashhenija po ishemicheskomu tipu [First Experience of Regional Vascular Center ROKB in Endovascular Treatment of ischemic stroke]. Mezhdunarodnyj zhurnal intentencionnoj kardiologii. 2010; 23: 32-42 [In Russ].

5.    Gusev E.I., Skvorcova V.I., Martynov M.Ju. Vedenie bol'nyh v ostrom periode mozgovogo insul'ta [The treatment of the acute phase of the stroke]. Vrach. 2003; 3: 8-24 [In Russ].

6.    Nakano S., Iseda T., Yoneyama T., et. Al. Direct percutaneous transluminal angioplasty for acute middle cerebral artery trunk occlusion: an alternative option to intra-arterial thrombollysis. Stroke. 2002; 33: 2872-2876.

7.    White J., Cates Ch., Cowley M. et. al. Interventional stroke therapy: current state of the art and needs assessment. Catheterization and Cardiovascular Intervention. 2007; DOI 10.1002/ccd: 1-7.

8.    Suzuki S., et al. Access to intra-arterial therapies for acute ischemic stroke: an analysis of the US population. AJNR Am. J. Neuroradiol. 2004; 25: 1802-1806.

9.    Wholey M.H, Global experience in cervical carotid artery stent placement. Catheter Cardiovasc. Interv. 2000; 50: 160-167



In clinical practice, ischemic stroke still remains a difficult problem, being in most leading causes of death. Development of new treatments, founding of new therapeutic algorythmes and untiringly technical progress in sphere of instrumental support of operation-room allow to proceed endovascular intervention in group of patients with cardioembolic stroke.

Case report presents successful endovascular treatment of patient from cardio-surgical department of Belgorod Region Clinical Hospital named after St. loasaf, with cardioembolic stroke, onset in preoperative period (before aorto-coronary bypass).

Materials and methods: patient A., 59 years, diagnosis: «Ischemic heart disease. Exertional angina FC II. Post-infarction cardiosclerosis. (AMI in September 2014). Stenosis of coronary arteries according to coronary angiography (CAG), hemodynamically significant. Hypertensive heart disease III st., 2 degree, with the defeat of the heart and blood vessels of the brain, with the achievement of target blood pressure (BP). Diabetes mellitus type 2, the second insulin-depended, stage subcompensation. Risk factor 4. congestive heart failure 2a class, functional class III. Chronic gallstone disease. Chronic calculous cholecystitis without exacerbation». 05.02.15 - onset of ischemic stroke in left hemisphere of brain. Patient urgently underwent: multislice computed tomography (MSCT), MSCT-angiography of main brain arteries, direct angiography of main brain arteries. Survey showed: occlusion of proximal third of left common carotid artery (CCA) with TICI-0 blood flow; left middle cerebral artery (MCA) and anterior cerebral artery (ACA) were filled threw anterior communicating artery (ACoA) from right internal carotid artery (ICA). Patient underwent: recanalization of occlusion, thrombectomy from left CCA, stenting of CCA-ICA segment, selective thrombolythic therapy into left MCA.

Results: «Time-To-Treatment» was 4 hours 15 minutes. Made endovascular treatment leaded to regression of neurological deficit.

Conclusions: the use of endovascular methods in patients with cardioembolic stroke car decrease neurological deficit and increase quality of life of patients in this group.  




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At the present level of development of medicine, a group of disorders of mesenteric blood flow remains extremely difficult to diagnose. High mortality at this disease is related to the late detectability, lesion volume, patient's age and the presence of severe comorbidity. However, modern specialized hospitals, with a large arsenal of diagnostic methods, as well as a high level of surgical care in this group of patients apply endovascular interventions for early detection of disease and its possible correction.

Case report describes a clinical case of the female patient A., 58 years old, who was treated at the neurovascular department of Belgorod regional clinical hospital named after St. Ioasaf, with acute stroke of ischemic type in the left hemisphere of the brain, cardioembolic subtype. On the 5th day of hospital treatment, the patient complained on a discomfort and further abdominal pain, bloating - suspected mesenteric ischemia. The patient underwent spiral computed tomography (CT) with bolus-enhansment: diagnosed significant stenosis of celiac trunk (CT), subtotal stenosis of the proximal segment of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) with signs of local occlusion. As a matter of urgency, in endovascular operating room, patient underwent endovascular procedure: Angiography of visceral branches of the abdominal aorta, followed by thrombectomy and stenting. Control angiography - hemodynamics in the stented segment - is not disturbed, the width of the arterial lumen is fully restored, signs of dissection and distal embolism are absent.

Conclusions: angiographic diagnostic methods in patients with mesenteric arteries thromboembolism is a highly informative, they do not require special preparation of the patient and it can immediately perform a medical intervention. Endovascular diagnosis and treatment can be recommended as a method of choice in the diagnosis and treatment of such severe disease as acute mesenteric thrombosis and thromboembolism. 



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Ischemic stroke (AS) is one of the leading causes of death and disability of the working populatior around the world. According to modern recommendations, mechanical thrombectomy with use of stent-retrievers is the most effective method of treatment for stroke. with localization of thrombus in large cerebral arteries of the carotid basin.

The article presents a literature review devoted to various stent-retrievers, their technical characteristics, and their potential for application in the treatment of acute cerebrovascular accident, ischemic type. The analysis and comparative characteristics of existing modern stent-retrievers are presented, depending on the diameter and artery bend, thromb characteristics, stent characteristics. 



1.     Savello A.V., Voznjuk I.A., Svistov D.V. Vnutrisosudistoe lechenie ishemicheskogo insul'ta v ostrejshem periode (klinicheskie rekomendacii) [Intravascular treatment of ischemic stroke in acute period (clinical recommendations)]. Sankt-Peterburg. 2015.

2.     Powers W., Derdeyn C., Biller J., et al. Guidelines for the early management of patients with acute ischemic stroke regarding endovascular treatment: a guideline for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association //American Stroke Association Stroke. published online June 29, 2015.

3.     Abou-Chebl A., Bajzer C.T., Krieger D.W., et al. Multimodal therapy for the treatment of severe ischemic stroke combining GP IIb/IIIa antagonists and angioplasty after failure of thromboysis. Stroke. 2005. (36): 2286-2288.

4.     Levy E.I., Ecker R.D., Horowitz M.B., et al. Stent-assisted intracranial recanalization for acute stroke: early results. Neurosurgery. 2006 (58): 458-463.

5.     Gupta R., Vora N.A., Horowitz M.B., et al. Multimodal reperfusion therapy for acute ischemic stroke: factors predicting vessel recanalization. Stroke. 2006 (37): 986-990.

6.     Castano C., Dorado L., Guerrero C., et al. Mechanical thrombectomy with the Solitaire AB device in large artery occlusions of the anterior circulation: a pilot study. Stroke. 2010 (41): 1836-1840.

7.     Kvan der Marel K., Chueh J.Y, Brooks O.W., et al. Quantitative assessment of device-clot interaction for stent retriever thrombectomy. JNeurointervSurg. 2016 (0): 1-6.

8.     Haussen D.,  Lima A., Nogueira R. The Trevo XP 3x20 mm retriever (‘Baby Trevo’) for the treatment of distal intracranial occlusions. J NeuroIntervent Surg. 2016 (8): 2951299.

9.     Kahles T., Garcia-Esperon C., Zeller S., et al. Mechanical thrombectomy using the new ERIC retrieval device is feasible, efficient, and safe in acute ischemic stroke: a swiss stroke center experience. Am. J. Neuroradiol. 2016 (37): 114 -119.

10.   Raoult H., Redjem H., Bourcier R., et al. Mechanical thrombectomy with the ERIC retrieval device: initial experience. J. NeuroIntervent. Surg. 2016 (0): 1-4.

11.   Machi P, Jourdan F., Ambard D., et. al. Experimental evaluation of stent retrievers mechanical properties and effectiveness J. NeuroIntervent. Surg. 2016 (0):1-7.

12.   Schwaiger B., Gersing A., Zimmer C., et al. The curved MCA: influence of vessel anatomy on recanalization results of mechanical thrombectomy after acute ischemic stroke. Am. J. Neuroradiol. 2015 (36): 971-976.

13.   Tetsuya Hashimoto, Mikito Hayakawa, Naoko Funatsu, et al., Histopathologic analysis of retrieved thrombi associated with successful reperfusion after acute stroke thrombectomy. Stroke. 2016 (47): 3035-3037.

14.   Mokin M., Morr S., Natarajan S., et al. Thrombus density predicts successful recanalization with Solitaire stent retriever thrombectomy in acute ischemic stroke. J. Neurointerv. Surg. 2015 (7): 104-107.

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