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Abstract:

Introduction: research is dedicated to use of intracerebral laser photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) in treatment of ischemic stroke after-effects in comparison with conservative therapy methods.

Aim: was to evaluate effectiveness of intracerebral transcatheter laser PBMT in patients with previous ischemic stroke.

Materials and methods: 836 patients were included in study, within the period from 6 months to 6 years after ischemic strokes of various severity, aged 29-81 (mean age 74,9): 593 men (70,93%), 243 women (29,07%). Test Group - 511 (61,12%) patients with distal lesions of intracerebral arteries who underwent transcatheter intracerebral laser PBMT; control Group - 325 (38,88%) patients with similar distal lesions of intracerebral arteries who received conservative treatment.

Results: Test Group: good clinical results were obtained in 259 (87,21%) cases after small focal strokes; in 94 (60,26%) after midfocal strokes; in 12 (20,69%) after macrofocal strokes. Satisfactory clinical results were obtained in 33 (11.11%) cases after small focal strokes; 39 (25,00%) after midfocal strokes; 22 (37,93%) after macrofocal strokes.

Control Group: 51 (21,07%) patients after small focal strokes showed good clinical results; patients after midfocal strokes and macrofocal strokes did not have good results; 60 (24,79%) patients after small focal strokes and 8 (19,05%) patients after midfocal strokes showed satisfactory clinical results; patients after macrofocal strokes did not have satisfactory results.

Conclusions: transcatheter intracerebral laser photobiomodulation therapy is an effective, pathogenetically substantiated method of treatment in patients with ischemic stroke after-effects, leading to restoration of activities of daily living, of cognitive and mental functions and returning patients to fully active life.

 

References

1.     Ahmad FB, Anderson RA. The Leading Causes of Death in the US for 2020. JAMA. 2021.

2.     Maksimovich IV. Transcatheter Treatment of Atherosclerotic Lesions of the Brain Complicated by Vascular Dementia. Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology. 2013; 7(2): 65-75 [In Russ].

3.     Maksimovich IV. Transcatheter intracerebral photobiomodulation in ischemic brain disorders: clinical studies (Part 2). Photobiomodulation in the Brain. 2019; 529-544.

4.     Caplan LR. The Effect of Small Artery Disease on the Occurrence and Management of Large Artery Disease. JAMA Neurol. 2016; 73(1): 19-20.

5.     Zhulev NM, Pustozertsev VG, Zhulev SN. Cerebrovascular Diseases. 2002; Moscow, BINOM [In Russ].

6.     Maksimovich IV. Application of transcatheter laser technologies in treatment of atherosclerotic lesions of the brain. Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology. 2016; 10(3): 57-67 [In Russ].

7.     Hamblin MR. Photobiomodulation for Traumatic Brain Injury and Stroke. J Neurosci Res. 2018; 96(4): 731-743.

8.     Maksimovich IV. Results of brain transcatheter laser revascularization in the treatment of the consequences of ischemic stroke. J Vas Dis Treat. 2017; 1(1): 2-5.

9.     Pasi M, Cordonnier Ch. Clinical Relevance of Cerebral Small Vessel Diseases. Stroke. 2020; 51(1): 47-53.

10.   Regenhardt RW, Das AS, Lo EH, et al. Advances in Understanding the Pathophysiology of Lacunar Stroke: A Review. JAMA Neurol. 2018; 75(10): 1273-1281.

11.   Pendlebury ST, Rothwell PM. Incidence and prevalence of dementia associated with transient ischaemic attack and stroke: analysis of the population-based Oxford Vascular Study. Lancet Neurol. 2019; 18(3): 248-258.

12.   Akioka N, Takaiwa A, Kashiwazaki D, et al. Clinical significance of hemodynamic cerebral ischemia on cognitive function in carotid artery stenosis: a prospective study before and after revascularization. J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2017; 61(3): 323-330.

13.   Haupert G, Ammi M, Hersant J, et al. Treatment of carotid restenoses after endarterectomy: A retrospective monocentric study. Ann Vasc Surg. 2020; 64: 43-53.

14.   Featherstone RL, Dobson J, Ederle J, et al. Carotid artery stenting compared with endarterectomy in patients with symptomatic carotid stenosis (International Carotid Stenting Study): a randomised controlled trial with cost-effectiveness analysis. Health Technol Assess. 2016; 20(20): 81-94.

15.   Lamanna A, Maingard J, Barras CD, et al. Carotid artery stenting: Current state of evidence and future directions. Acta Neurol Scand. 2019; 139(4): 318-333.

16.   Kim NY, Choi JW, Whang K, et al. Neurologic complications in patients with carotid artery stenting. J Cerebrovasc Endovasc Neurosurg. 2019; 21(2): 86-93.

17.   Yoo J, Choi JW, Lee SJ, et al. Ischemic Diffusion Lesion Reversal After Endovascular Treatment. Stroke. 2019; 50(6): 1504-1509.

18.   Gramegna LL, Cardozo A, Folleco E, Tomasello A. Flow-diverter reconstruction of an intracranial internal carotid artery dissection during thrombectomy for acute ischaemic stroke. BMJ Case Rep. 2020; 13(1).

19.   Snyder T, Agarwal S, Huang J, et al. Stroke Treatment Delay Limits Outcome After Mechanical Thrombectomy: Stratification by Arrival Time and ASPECTS. J Neuroimaging. 2020; 30(5): 625-630.

20.   Chu YT, Lee KP, Chen CH, et al. Contrast-Induced Encephalopathy After Endovascular Thrombectomy for Acute Ischemic Stroke. Stroke. 2020; 51(12): 3756-3759.

21.   Maksimovich IV. Laser Technologies as a New Direction in Transcatheter Interventions. Photobiomodul Photomed and Laser Surg. 2019; 37(8): 455-456.

22.   Maksimovich IV. Transluminal laser angioplasty in treatment of ischemic lesions of a brain. Ph.D. Dissertation, Russian University of Friendship of the People 2004; Moscow [In Russ].

23.   Hamblin MR. Photobiomodulation, Photomedicine, and Laser Surgery: A New Leap Forward Into the Light for the 21st Century. Photobiomodul Photomed Laser Surg. 2018; 36(8): 395-396.

24.   Salehpour F, Gholipour-Khalili S, Farajdokht F, et al. Therapeutic potential of intranasal photobiomodulation therapy for neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders: a narrative review. Reviews in the Neurosciences. 2020; 31(3): 269-286.

25.   Saltmarche AE, Margaret A, Naeser MA, et al. Significant Improvement in Cognition in Mild to Moderately Severe Dementia Cases Treated with Transcranial Plus Intranasal Photobiomodulation: Case Series Report. Photomedicine and Laser Surgery. 2017; 35(8): 432-441.

26.   Hamblin MR. Mechanisms and Mitochondrial Redox Signaling in Photobiomodulation. Photochem Photobiol. 2018; 94(2):199-212.

27.   Huang YY, Hamblin MR. Photobiomodulation on cultured cortical neurons. Photobiomodulation in the Brain. 2019: 35-46.

28.   Hamblin MR. Mechanisms of photobiomodulation in the brain Photobiomodulation in the Brain. 2019: 97-110.

29.   Lapchak PA. The challenge of effectively translating transcranial near-infrared laser therapy to treat acute ischemic stroke. Photobiomodulation in the Brain. 2019: 289-298.

30.   Taboada LD, Hamblin MR. Transcranial photobiomodulation for stroke in animal models. Photobiomodulation in the Brain. 2019: 111-124.

31.   Maksimovich IV. Intracerebral Transcatheter Laser PBMT in the Treatment of Binswanger's Disease and Vascular Parkinsonism: Research and Clinical Experience. Photobiomodul Photomed and Laser Surg. 2019; 37(10): 606-614.

32.   Mahoney FI, Barthel DM. Functional evaluation: The barthel index. Maryland State Medical Journal. 1965; 14: 61-65.

33.   Morris JC. The Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR): Current Version and Scoring Rules. Neurology. 1993; 11(43): 2412-2414.

34.   Folstein MF, Folstein SE, McHugh PR. «Mini-mental state». A practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. J Psychiatr Res. 1975; 12(3): 189-198.

 

Abstract:

Introduction: more than 10 million ischemic strokes are recorded in the world every year - a disease, the mechanism of development of which is associated with impaired blood flow to the brain tissues, mainly due to embolism in intracranial arteries. One of treatment methods of ischemic stroke within the «therapeutic window», in the absence of contraindications, is systemic thrombolytic therapy. Thrombolytic therapy has a number of limitations and contraindications, including ongoing or occurring bleeding of various localization within a period of up to 6 months.

Aim: was to evaluate the possibility of performing and the effectiveness of «off-label» simultaneous selective thrombolytic therapy and uterine arteries embolization in a patient with acute ischemic stroke with multiple distal lesions of middle cerebral artery branches against the background of ongoing uterine bleeding.

Case report: patient S., 42 years old, was hospitalized to the pulmonary department for bronchial asthma treatment with the aim of preoperative preparation before extirpation of the uterus, against the background of menometrorrhagia. At one of days of hospitalization, patient suffered from acute dysarthria, right-sided hemiparesis. When performing multislice computed tomography and angiography, multiple occlusions were revealed in the distal segments (M3-M4) of the left middle cerebral artery. The patient underwent simultaneous selective thrombolytic therapy of the left middle cerebral artery and uterine artery embolization.

Results: in the next few hours of the postoperative period, the patient experienced regression of neurological deficit: symptoms of dysarthria were arrested, almost complete restoration of motor activity in the right extremities, residual slight asymmetry of the face; bleeding from uterine stopped.

The patient was discharged on the 16th day with a slight neurological deficit. The follow-up period is 18 months. Neurological status with minor deficits: slight asymmetry of facial muscles; the strength of muscles of right limbs is reduced to 4-4,5 points. Ultrasound: a significant decrease in the size of the uterus and myomatous nodes. Menstrual cycle is restored.

Conclusions: a wide range of angiographic instruments and skills of endovascular surgeons made it possible to perform «off-label» simultaneous intervention in a patient with ischemic stroke and multiple distal lesions of branches of the middle cerebral artery against the background of ongoing uterine bleeding and giant myoma. The use of methods of endovascular hemostasis makes it possible to stop bleeding by overcoming contraindications to thrombolytic therapy. The use of thrombolytic therapy within the «therapeutic window» allows regression of neurological deficits in patients with multiple distal cerebral artery lesions.

  

References 

1.     GBD 2016 Stroke Collaborators. Global, regional, and national burden of stroke, 1990-2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016. Lancet Neurol. 2019; 18(5): 439-458.

https://doi.org/10.1016/S1474-4422(19)30034-1

2.     Клинические рекомендации по ведению больных с ишемическим инсультом и транзиторными ишемическими атаками. Москва; 2017: 92.

Clinical guidelines for the management of patients with ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attacks. Moscow; 2017: 92 [In Russ].

3.     Клинические рекомендации по проведению тромболитической терапии при ишемическом инсульте. Москва; 2015: 34.

Clinical guidelines for thrombolytic therapy in ischemic stroke. Moscow; 2015: 34 [In Russ].

4.     Chiasakul T, Bauer KA. Thrombolytic therapy in acute venous thromboembolism. Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program. 2020; 1: 612-618.

5.     Yuan K, Zhang JL, Yan JY, et al. Uterine Artery Embolization with Small-Sized Particles for the Treatment of Symptomatic Adenomyosis: A 42-Month Clinical Follow-Up. Int J Gen Med. 2021; 14: 3575-3581.

6.     Клинические рекомендации: миома матки. Москва; 2020: 48.

Clinical guidelines: uterine fibroids. Moscow; 2020: 48 [In Russ].

 

Abstract:

Introduction: basilar artery thrombosis (BAT) is the cause of about 1% of ischemic strokes (IS). About 27% of strokes in posterior circulation are associated with BAT. Mortality in BAT without recanalization reaches 85-95%. In 80.7% of patients with BAT at the onset of disease a decrease in level of consciousness is observed, in 34% of them – coma.

Aim: was to show the possibility of performing thrombectomy (TE) in patients with BAT and reduced level of consciousness as the only effective way to prevent death in this pathology.

Materials and methods: two case reports of successful TE from basilar artery in patients with IS and decrease in level of wakefulness to coma, are presented.

Results: article describes two successful cases of TE in patients with angiographically confirmed BAT and decrease in the level of consciousness to moderate coma at the onset of disease. In two presented patients, TE made a complete restoration of BA blood flow. Good clinical outcomes were noted in both patients by 90th day of disease (modified Rankin scale 0-2 points). The Rivermead mobility index at discharge from hospital was 14 points, and the Bartel index by 90th day – complete independence from others in everyday life (from 90 to 100 points), and that once again indicates that TE in BAT is not only a life-saving procedure, but significantly improves functional and clinical outcomes of disease.

Conclusions: basilar artery thrombosis is a life-threatening condition that requires urgent reperfusion therapy as the only effective method of treatment. Endovascular treatment for basilar artery thrombosis should be considered in all patients, regardless the decrease in the level of consciousness at the onset of disease, because thrombectomy is a life-saving procedure.

  

 

References 

1.     Reinemeyer NE, Tadi P, Lui F. Basilar Artery Thrombosis. In: StatPearls. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; January 31, 2021. Available at:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK532241/

2.     Ekker MS, Boot EM, Singhal AB, et al. Epidemiology, aetiology, and management of ischaemic stroke in young adults. Lancet Neurol. 2018; 17(9): 790-801.

https://doi.org/10.1016/S1474-4422(18)30233-3

3.     Ikram A, Zafar A. Basilar Artery Infarct. In: StatPearls. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; August 10, 2020. Available at:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK551854/

4.     Gory B, Mazighi M, Labreuche J, et al. Predictors for Mortality after Mechanical Thrombectomy of Acute Basilar Artery Occlusion. Cerebrovasc Dis. 2018; 45(1-2): 61-67.

https://doi.org/10.1159/000486690

5.     Writing Group for the BASILAR Group, Zi W, Qiu Z, et al. Assessment of Endovascular Treatment for Acute Basilar Artery Occlusion via a Nationwide Prospective Registry. JAMA Neurol. 2020; 77(5): 561-573.

https://doi.org/10.1001/jamaneurol.2020.0156

6.     Bracard S, Ducrocq X, Mas JL, et al. Mechanical thrombectomy after intravenous alteplase versus alteplase alone after stroke (THRACE): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet Neurol. 2016; 15(11): 1138-1147.

https://doi.org/10.1016/S1474-4422(16)30177-6

7.     Liu Z, Liebeskind DS. Basilar Artery Occlusion and Emerging Treatments. Semin Neurol. 2021; 41(1): 39-45.

https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0040-1722638

8.     Powers WJ, Rabinstein AA, Ackerson T, et al. Guidelines for the Early Management of Patients With Acute Ischemic Stroke: 2019 Update to the 2018 Guidelines for the Early Management of Acute Ischemic Stroke: A Guideline for Healthcare Professionals From the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke. 2019; 50(12): 344-418.

https://doi.org/10.1161/STR.0000000000000211

9.     Baik SH, Park HJ, Kim JH, et al. Mechanical Thrombectomy in Subtypes of Basilar Artery Occlusion: Relationship to Recanalization Rate and Clinical Outcome. Radiology. 2019; 291(3): 730-737.

https://doi.org/10.1148/radiol.2019181924

10.   Weber R, Minnerup J, Nordmeyer H, et al. Thrombectomy in posterior circulation stroke: differences in procedures and outcome compared to anterior circulation stroke in the prospective multicentre REVASK registry. Eur J Neurol. 2019; 26(2): 299-305.

https://doi.org/10.1111/ene.13809

11.   Kang DH, Jung C, Yoon W, et al. Endovascular Thrombectomy for Acute Basilar Artery Occlusion: A Multicenter Retrospective Observational Study. J Am Heart Assoc. 2018; 7(14): 009419.

https://doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.118.009419

12.   Liu X, Dai Q, Ye R, et al. Endovascular treatment versus standard medical treatment for vertebrobasilar artery occlusion (BEST): an open-label, randomised controlled trial. Lancet Neurol. 2020; 19(2): 115-122.

https://doi.org/10.1016/S1474-4422(19)30395-3

13.   Potter JK, Clemente JD, Asimos AW. Hyperdense basilar artery identified on unenhanced head CT in three cases of pediatric basilar artery occlusion. Am J Emerg Med. 2021; 42: 221-224.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajem.2020.11.055

 

Abstract:

Introduction: every year in the world, more than 13 millions strokes are recorded, most often (up to 80%) - acute cerebrovascular accidents of ischemic type, in which the cause of cerebral infarction is acute embolic occlusion of intracranial artery. Restoration of cerebral perfusion as early as possible from the onset of the disease can lead to a decrease of infarction zone and an improvement in clinical outcomes of the disease.

Case report: a 78-year-old patient was admitted with a clinical picture of acute stroke 90 minutes after onset; after computed tomography was performed, according to generally accepted method, systemic thrombolytic therapy was started. Angiography (occlusion of left middle cerebral artery (MCA) in the M1 segment followed by aspiration and then mechanical thrombectomy showed an «early» bifurcation of middle cerebral artery with a large lateral branch. Occluding thrombus was localized precisely in the area of MCA bifurcation, in branches of equal diameter. After unsuccessful attempts at thrombus extraction using the standard thrombus extraction and aspiration technique, patient underwent thrombus extraction using the original method (we called R-Culotte): simultaneous use of two retrievers positioned in the Culotte style (Culotte - «pants», French, R -retriever, English) in lumen of the bifurcation of middle cerebral artery. Blood flow in MCA was restored to mTICI-3 without complications. After the intervention, there was a rapid positive trend. Patient was discharged on 12th day with minimal neurological deficit.

Conclusions: this technique allowed to remove the thrombus and restore antegrade blood flow without complications after a series of unsuccessful attempts using the standard approach. Endovascular treatment of ischemic stroke has opened a new era in the treatment of this formidable disease. The search for new techniques for using existing devices contributes to the development of this promising technique.

 

References

1.     Ciccone A, del Zoppo GJ. Evolving Role of Endovascular Treatment of Acute Ischemic Stroke. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep. 2014 Jan; 14(1): 416.

2.     Sardar P, Chatterjee S, Giri J, et al. Endovascular therapy for acute ischaemic stroke: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials. Eur Heart J. 2015; 36 (35): 2373-2380.

3.     Novakovic RL, Toth G, Narayanan S, Zaidat OO. Retrievable stents, «stentrievers», for endovascular acute ischemic stroke therapy. Neurology. 2012; 79 (13 Suppl 1): 148–157.

4.     Arnaout OM, Rahme RJ, El Ahmadieh TY, et al. Past, present, and future perspectives on the endovascular treatment of acute ischemic stroke. Tech Vasc Interv Radiol. 2012; 15: 87-92.

5.     Koh JS, Lee SJ, Ryu CW, Kim HS. Safety and efficacy of mechanical thrombectomy with solitaire stent retrieval for acute ischemic stroke: A systematic review. J Neurointervention. 2012; 7: 1-9.

6.     Singh P, Kaur R, Kaur A. Endovascular treatment of acute ischemic stroke. J Neurosci Rural Pract. 2013 Jul-Sep; 4(3): 298-303.

7.     Goyal M, Yu AY, Menon BK, et al. Endovascular Therapy in Acute Ischemic Stroke. J Stroke. 2016; 47: 548-553.

8.     GBD 2016 Stroke Collaborators. Global, regional, and national burden of stroke, 1990–2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016. Lancet Neurol. 2019; 18(5): 439-458.

https://doi.org/10.1016/S1474-4422(19)30034-1

 

Abstract:

Introduction: up to the present day, there were no published multicenter randomized researches, that could compare combined concept of thrombectomy, including different methods of stent-retrievers traction with elements of aspiration and thrombolysis. There is no data on the effect of embolic complications after extraction of thrombus from cerebral arteries on outcomes of treatment.

Aim: was to increase the effectiveness of treatment of patients with ischemic stroke basing on a comparison of results of various methods of endovascular thrombectomy from cerebral vessels and intravenous thrombolysis, and on the base of assessment of effect of distal embolism on treatment outcomes in acute period of ischemic stroke.

Materials and methods: we carried out statistical analysis of results of different methods of thrombectomy in 75 patients and intravenous thrombolysis in 75 patients in acute phase of ischemic stroke. Effect of embolic complications after thrombectomy on outcomes of treatment of ischemic stroke was determined.

Results: groups of patients were comparable in age, neurological deficit, sex, localization and stroke subtype. The first group is burdened by the proportion of documented cerebral artery occlusion, diabetes mellitus and ischemic stroke in anamnesis. Differences in deaths and disability rates were not reliable. Thrombectomy demonstrated neurological deficit regression at all evaluation intervals, as well as the superiority of 2 times at achievement of functionally independent outcome in comparison with intravenous thrombolysis group.

Conclusions: a concept to thrombectomy, that supposes different methods of use of stent-retrievers and aspiration demonstrates better functional outcomes in treatment of ischemic stroke in the acute phase compared with intravenous thrombolysis. Embolic complications of reperfusion treatment adversely affect ischemic stroke outcomes and should be considered as a factor requiring minimization.

 

References

1.     Domashenko MA, Maksimova MY, Gafarova ME et al. The personification of reperfusion therapy approaches for ischemic stroke. Annals of Clinical and Experimental Neurology. 2017;11(1):7-13 [In Russ].

2.     Powers W, Rabinstein A, Ackerson T et al. 2018 Guidelines for the Early Management of Patients With Acute Ischemic Stroke: A Guideline for Healthcare Professionals From the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke. 2018; 49(3):e46-e99.

https://doi.org/10.1161/STR.0000000000000158

3.     Sandercock P, Wardlaw JM, Lindley RI et al.; IST-3 collaborative group. The benefits and harms of intravenous thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator within 6 h of acute ischemic stroke (the third international stroke trial [IST-3]): a randomised controlled trial. The Lancet. 2012;379(9834):2352-2363.

https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(12)60768-5

4.     Riedel C, Zimmermann P, Jensen-Kondering U et al. The Importance of Size: successful recanalization by intravenous thrombolysis in acute anterior stroke depends on thrombus length. Stroke. 2011;42(6):1775-1777.

https://doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.110.609693

5.     Kharitonova T, Ahmed N, Thoren M et al. Hyperdense Middle Cerebral Artery Sign on Admission CT Scan – Prognostic Significance for Ischaemic Stroke Patients Treated with Intravenous Thrombolysis in the Safe Implementation of Thrombolysis in Stroke International Stroke Thrombolysis Register. Cerebrovascular Diseases. 2008;27(1): 51-59.

https://doi.org/10.1159/000172634

6.     Thomalla G, Kruetzelmann A, Siemonsen S et al. Clinical and Tissue Response to Intravenous Thrombolysis in Tandem Internal Carotid Artery/Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion. Stroke. 2008;39(5):1616-1618.

https://doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.107.504951

7.     Turc G, Bhogal P, Fischer U et al. European Stroke Organisation (ESO) – European Society for Minimally Invasive Neurological Therapy (ESMINT) guidelines on mechanical thrombectomy in acute ischemic stroke. Journal of NeuroInterventional Surgery. 2019;11(6):535-538.

https://doi.org/10.1136/neurintsurg-2018-014568

8.     Fransen P, Berkhemer O, Lingsma H et al. Time to Reperfusion and Treatment Effect for Acute Ischemic Stroke: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Neurology. 2016;73(2):190-196.

https://doi.org/10.1001/jamaneurol.2015.3886

9.     Goyal M, Demchuk A, Menon B et al. Randomized Assessment of Rapid Endovascular Treatment of Ischemic Stroke. New England Journal of Medicine. 2015;372(11): 1019-1030.

https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1414905

10.   Campbell B, Mitchell P, Kleinig T et al. Endovascular Therapy for Ischemic Stroke with Perfusion-Imaging Selection. New England Journal of Medicine. 2015;372(11): 1009-1018.

https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1414792

11.   Bracard S, Ducrocq X, Mas J et al. Mechanical thrombectomy after intravenous alteplase versus alteplase alone after stroke (THRACE): a randomised controlled trial. The Lancet Neurology. 2016;15(11):1138-1147.

https://doi.org/10.1016/S1474-4422(16)30177-6

12.   Jovin T, Chamorro A, Cobo E et al. Thrombectomy within 8 Hours after Symptom Onset in Ischemic Stroke. New England Journal of Medicine. 2015;372(24):2296-2306.

https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1503780

13.   Muir K, Ford G, Messow C et al. Endovascular therapy for acute ischaemic stroke: the Pragmatic Ischaemic Stroke Thrombectomy Evaluation (PISTE) randomised, controlled trial. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry. 2016;88(1):38-44.

https://doi.org/10.1136/jnnp-2016-314117

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https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1415061

15.   McCarthy D, Diaz A, Sheinberg D et al. Long-Term Outcomes of Mechanical Thrombectomy for Stroke: A Meta-Analysis. The Scientific World Journal. 2019; 2019:1-9.

https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/7403104

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18.   Kang D, Kim B, Heo J et al. Effect of balloon guide catheter utilization on contact aspiration thrombectomy. Journal of Neurosurgery. 2018;1-7.

https://doi.org/10.3171/2018.6.JNS181045

19.   Maegerlein C, Monch S, Boeckh-Behrens T et al. PROTECT: PRoximal balloon Occlusion TogEther with direCt Thrombus aspiration during stent retriever thrombectomy – evaluation of a double embolic protection approach in endovascular stroke treatment. Journal of NeuroInterventional Surgery. 2017;10(8):751-755.

https://doi.org/10.1136/neurintsurg-2017-013558

20.   Goto S, Ohshima T, Ishikawa K et al. A Stent-Retrieving into an Aspiration Catheter with Proximal Balloon (ASAP) Technique: A Technique of Mechanical Thrombectomy. World Neurosurgery. 2018;109:e468-e475.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2017.10.004

21.   Lee D, Sung J, Kim S et al. Effective use of balloon guide catheters in reducing incidence of mechanical thrombectomy related distal embolization. Acta Neurochirurgica. 2017;159(9):1671-1677.

https://doi.org/10.1007/s00701-017-3256-3

22.   Stampfl S, Pfaff J, Herweh C et al. Combined proximal balloon occlusion and distal aspiration: a new approach to prevent distal embolization during neurothrombectomy. Journal of NeuroInterventional Surgery. 2016;9(4):346-351.

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https://doi.org/10.1161/01.str.24.1.35

31.   Logvinenko RL, Kokov LS, Shabunin AV, Arablinskiy AlV, Tsurkan VA. Analysis of a modified method for combined removal of throbus from blood vessels of the brain in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke. REJR. 2020; 10 (1):159-177 [In Russ].

https://doi.org/10.21569/2222-7415-2020-10-1-159-177

32.   Chen C, Parsons M, Levi C, Spratt N, Miteff F, Lin L et al. Exploring the relationship between ischemic core volume and clinical outcomes after thrombectomy or thrombolysis. Neurology. 2019;93(3):e283-e292.

https://doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000007768

33.   Southerland A, Johnston K. Considering hyperglycemia and thrombolysis in the Stroke Hyperglycemia Insulin Network Effort (SHINE) trial. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2012;1268(1):72-78.

https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.2012.06731.x

34.   Lansberg M, Thijs V, Bammer R, Kemp S, Wijman C, Marks M et al. Risk Factors of Symptomatic Intracerebral Hemorrhage After tPA Therapy for Acute Stroke. Stroke. 2007;38(8):2275-2278.

https://doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.106.480475

 

Abstract:

Introduction: among patients with ischemic stroke (IS), more than 17% has atrial fibrillation (AF). The active application of aspiration thrombectomy (AT), in addition to thrombolytic therapy (TLT), can significantly improve functional outcome, prognosis and survival of patients with IS. The main method of preventing of IS in patients with nonvalvular AF today is still an anticoagulant therapy, but percutaneous transcatheter occlusion of the left atrium appendage (LAA) can be an alternative method, especially if anticoagulant therapy is contraindicated or ineffective.

Aim: was to demonstrate results of a complex staged treatment of an age-related patient with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation, complicated by the development of cardioembolic ischemic stroke while taking anticoagulants.

Material and methods: a clinical observation of a 81-year-old patient delivered to the hospital with a clinical manifestation of ischemic stroke in the “therapeutic window”, with a history of persistent AF and taking anticoagulants, is presented. After conservative therapy - a regression of neurological symptoms was achieved. Three days after - negative dynamics in the clinical picture with development of aphasia and right-sided hemiplegia. Multispiral computed tomography with contrast (MSCT-A): occlusion of M2 segment of the left middle cerebral artery (MCA). Patient underwent aspiration thrombectomy with complete restoration of blood flow and regression of neurological symptoms. After 2 months from the episode of IS, patient underwent implantation of occlude in the left atrial appendage as a prophylaxis of re-embolism, followed by the abolition of warfarin.

Results: a senile patient returned to normal life and self-care (assessed using the modified Rankin scale 1). During next 13 months patient had no major adverse cardiac events (MACE) or significant bleeding and all that shows that occlusion of LAA is effective.

Conclusions: in the early period of ischemic stroke, isolated aspiration thrombectomy is the operation of choice in patients with atrial fibrillation and contraindication for thrombolytic therapy, and endovascular occlusion of the left atrial appendage can be the method of choice for secondary prevention of ischemic stroke. Further studies are required to assess applicability and reproducibility of the approach we have described in routine clinical practice.

  

References

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https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(16)30962-X

2.     Feigin V.L., Krishnamurthi R.V., Parmar P., et al; GBD Writing Group; GBD 2013 Stroke Panel Experts Group. Update on the Global Burden of Ischemic and Hemorrhagic Stroke in 1990-2013: The GBD 2013 Study. Neuroepidemiology. 2015; 45 (3):161-76.

https://doi.org/10.1159/000441085

3.     Savello AV, Voznjuk IA, Svistov DV, Babichev KN, Kandyba DV, Shenderov SV, Vlasenko SV, Shlojdo EA, Kachesov JeJu, Esipovich ID, Haritonova TV. Results of treatment of ischemic stroke using intravascular thromboembolectomy in conditions of regional vascular centers in a metropolis (St. Petersburg). Zhurnal nevrologii i psihiatrii im. C.C. Korsakova. 2018; 118 (12-2): 54-63.

https://doi.org/10.17116/jnevro201811812254

4.     Savello AV, Svistov DV, Sorokoumov VA. Endovascular treatments for ischemic stroke: Present status and prospects. Nevrologia, nejropsihiatria, psihosomatika. 2015; 7 (4): 42-49.

https://doi.org/10.14412/2074-2711-2015-4-42-49

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7.     Pistoia F., Sacco S., Tiseo C., et al. The Epidemiology of Atrial Fibrillation and Stroke. Cardiol Clin. 2016; 34 (2): 255-268.

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https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rec.2016.11.033 

 

Abstract

Aim: was to evaluate the effectiveness of carotid arterial revascularization by stenting of internal carotid arteries (ICA) in patients with a previous ischemic stroke.

Materials and methods: in FSBI «Treatment and rehabilitation center» of the Ministry of Health of Russia,104 patients on treatment and rehabilitation after previous ischemic stroke, underwent stenting of symptomatic atherosclerotic stenosis of the ICA. The average time since stroke was 67 days (from 28 to 273 days). ICA stenting was performed according to generally accepted standards with the mandatory use of intravascular protective devices against cerebral embolism. In most patients we used a filter protection system (77 observations), and for stenosis of more than 95% and in the presence of an unstable atherosclerotic plaque, a proximal defense system was used (27 patients). In some cases, if the situation required it, a combination of protective devices was used (5 observations). A few days before upcoming operation, all patients were evaluated for microcirculation and perfusion in brain tissue using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), followed by analysis of results and comparison with SPECT data in the postoperative period.

Results: when analyzing 30 days after stenting, there were no fatal outcomes. In one case (0.96%) after stenting of the subtotal stenosis of the ICA, a hemorrhagic stroke on the ipsilateral side developed on the fifth day. In another case, intraoperative embolism of the ophthalmic artery occurred on the side of the operation with partial loss of vision field.

In the long-term period (4 years and 7 months), the number of undesirable events was 2%. In one case (0.96%), the patient died of ischemic stroke on the ipsilateral side after 3 years and 2 months after stenting. In another case, patient after 1 year and 2 months had an ischemic stroke on the side of the operation. Thus, the total number of complications associated with ICA stenting (30-day period + long-term period) was 3.8%.

When evaluating results of stenting by the SPECT method, the state of cerebral perfusion was assessed using perfusion maps in two modes and by axial perfusion sections.

In all observations after stenting, improvement of cerebral perfusion was noticed, regardless of the side and severity of ICA stenosis and the presence of focal postischemic changes. Visually, perfusion sections show a general increase in cerebral blood perfusion (CBP), a decrease in one-sided focal deficiency of CBP . Same results were obtained for relative cortex perfusion (relCP) in four regions and in vascular basins.

Comparing results, obtained by the number of undesirable events (strokes, restenosis and death) with the four-year data of the analysis of the international CREST study, the complication rate in our group is significantly lower (3.8% versus 8.6% in the CREST stenting group and 8.4% in carotid endarterectomy group CREST).

Conclusion: carotid stenting is an effective method of treatment of atherosclerotic lesions of main cerebral arteries in patients with previous stroke. The effectiveness of this type of treatment is confirmed by a positive clinical result and with the help of modern diagnostic methods, in particular SPECT.

 

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Abstract:

Aim: was to perform a retrospective comparative analysis of clinical and angiographic results of primary endovascular treatment of ischemic stroke in patients who had contraindications for adjuvant thrombolytic therapy, and results of applying standard pharmaco-invasive (thrombolysis and thrombus extraction) treatment.

Material and methods: angiography was performed in 61 patients. The main criterion for the selection of patients for cerebral angiography according to MSCT-angiography, was a confirmed occlusion of a large intracranial vessel (the internal carotid artery or the middle cerebral artery at M1-2 segment). After MSCT-angiography, in the absence of contraindications, (STT) systemic throbolytic therapy (Alteplaza in the standard dose) was started and patients were sent to an endovascular operation, where selective angiography of the syndrome-responsive artery was performed, followed by an endovascular procedure, according to standard procedure. For endovascular treatment, Penumbra Reperfusion catheters - ACE 68 , were used in combination with 3MAX catheters, or stent-retrievers (Trevo, PRESET, ERIC). In a number of cases, the use of retrievers was supplemented with an assisting thrombus aspiration («Solumbra» method). The criterion for the effectiveness of endovascular treatment was the achievement of blood flow in the syndrome-responsible artery TICI 2b - 3. 6 patients with lesion of distal segments of middle cerebral artery (M3-4) or with no occlusion of large intracranial occlusion were excluded from the study.

Results: all 55 patients who received endovascular treatment, retrospectively were divided into two groups depending on the performance of adjuvant STT Group of combined treatment (STT and endovascular procedure (EVP)) included 24 patients; 31 patients were included in the primary EVP group.

Conclusions: basing on results of the study it can be supposed that primary endovascular treatment of ischemic stroke without thrombolysis can provide comparable efficacy and safety of treatment.

 

References

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2.      Coutinho JM, Liebeskind DS, Slater LA, Nogueira RG, Clark W, Dбvalos A. Combined intravenous thrombolysis and thrombectomy vs thrombectomy alone for acute ischemicstroke: a pooled analysis of the SWIFT and STAR studies. JAMA Neurol. 2017;74:268-274.

3.      Broeg-Morvay A, Mordasini P, Bernasconi C, Bьhlmann M, Pult F, Arnold M. Direct mechanical intervention versus combined intravenous and mechanical intervention in large artery anterior circulation stroke: a matched-pairs analysis. Stroke. 2016; 47:1037-1044.

4.      Bellwald S, Weber R, Dobrocky T, Nordmeyer H, et al Direct Mechanical Intervention Versus Bridging Therapy in Stroke Patients Eligible for Intravenous Thrombolysis: A Pooled Analysis of 2 Registries. Stroke. 2017 Nov 7.

5.      Merlino, G., Sponza, M., Petralia, B. et al. Short and long-term outcomes after combined intravenous thrombolysis and mechanical thrombectomy versus direct mechanical thrombectomy: a prospective single-center study. J Thromb Thrombolysis. 2017; 44: 203.

6.      Guedin P, Larcher A, Decroix JP, Labreuche J, Dreyfus JF, Evrard S. Prior IV thrombolysis facilitates mechanical thrombectomy in acute ischemic stroke. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2015; 24:952-957.

7.      Behme D, Kabbasch C, Kowoll A, Dorn F, Liebig T, Weber W, Mpotsaris A. Intravenous thrombolysis facilitates successful recanalization with stent-retriever mechanical thrombectomy in middle cerebral artery occlusions. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2016; 25:954-959.

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9.      Kass-Hout T, Kass-Hout O, Mokin M, Thesier DM, Yashar P, Orion D. Is bridging with intravenous thrombolysis of any benefit in endovascular therapy for acute ischemic stroke? WorldNeurosurg. 2014; 82:e453-458.

 

Abstract:

The article presents an analysis of the choice of strategy for the treatment of ischemic stroke in the acute period, based on literature review.

Aim: was to develop the concept of effective thromboextraction (TE), based on the evaluation of factors influencing results of reperfusion treatment of ischemic stroke (IS), methods of endovascular restoration of cerebral blood flow

Materials and methods: meta-analysis of 44 sources of domestic and foreign literature is performed. The analysis of factors limiting the effectiveness of various reperfusion approaches and the analysis of modern methods of thrombectomy are performed.

Results: it is established, that SMAT (Solumbra) and PROTECT techniques have an advantage in comparison with aspiration approaches to thrombectomy in reducing the period to full reperfusion; methods with temporary occlusion of the source vessel (BGC) SAVE and PROTECT significantly reduce the risk of stroke spread to new vascular areas of the brain and increase the frequency of successful recanalization.

Conclusion: at present time, the PROTECT is the most effective technique in the frequency of successful recanalization, the degree and speed of achieved reperfusion, as well as in the prevention of distal embolization. Extrapolation of experience and principles from other sections of interventional radiology, development of new methods and strategies of brain reperfusion, depending on the morphology of thromboembolism, its size, localization and extent may contribute to improving results of endovascular treatment of ischemic stroke.

 

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42.    Nakano S., Iseda T., Yoneyama T. et al. Direct percutaneous transluminal angioplasty for acute middle cerebral artery trunk occlusion: an alternative option to intra-arterial thrombolysis. Stroke 2002; 33: 2872-2876.

43.    Qureshi AI, Siddiqui AM, Suri MF. et al. Aggressive mechanical clot disruption and low-dose intra-arterial third-generation thrombolytic agent for ischemic stroke: a prospective study. Neurosurgery 2002; 51: 1319-1329.

44.    von Gadow N., Nikoubashman O., Freiherr J. et al. Endovascular stroke treatment now and then-procedural and clinical effectiveness and safety of different mechanical thrombectomy techniques over time. Quant Imaging Med Surg. 2017 Feb; 7(1): 1-7.

 

 

Abstract:

Aim: was to assess efficiency of mechanical thrombectomy using stent-retriever pREset in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS).

Materials and methods: study included 27 patients with AIS. The average age of patients was 66 years, female - 12(44,4%). The average NIHSS was 20. Occlusion of middle cerebral artery (MCA) was observed in 21(77,8%) patients, internal carotid artery (ICA) - 4 patients, basilar artery - 2 patients.

Results: effective recovery of cerebral blood flow (TICI2b-3) was achieved in 22 patients (81,5%). The frequency of distal embolisms was 11,1%. The frequency of symptom hemorrhagic transformation was 7,4%. A favorable neurological outcome (mRs 0-2) was observed in 29,6% of patients, mortality was 25,9%.

Conclusions: the use of stent-retriever pREset allows to efficiently restore blood flow during occlusion of large cerebral arteries.

 

References

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2.      Savello A.V., Voznyuk I.A., Svistov D.V. Vnutrisosudistoe lechenie ishemicheskogo insul'ta v ostrejshem periode (klinicheskie rekomendacii) [Intravascular treatment of ischemic stroke in the acute period (clinical recommendations)]. Sankt-Peterburg. 2015; [In Russ].

3.      Volodyuhin M.YU., Hasanova D.R., Dyomin T.V., i dr. Vnutriarterial'naya reperfuzionnaya terapiya u pacientov s ostrym ishemicheskim insul'tom [Intraarterial reperfusion therapy in patients with acute ischemic stroke.]. Medicinskij sovet. 2015; (10): 6-11 [In Russ].

4.      Krylov V.V., Savello A.V., Volodyuhin M.YU. Rentgenehdovaskulyarnoe lechenie ostrogo ishemicheskogo insul'ta [Endovascular treatment of acute ischemic stroke.]. Rukovodstvo. Moskva. 2017; 120 s [In Russ].

5.      Schwaiger B., Kober F., Gersing A., et al. The pREset stent retriever for endovascular treatment of stroke caused by MCA occlusion: safety and clinical outcome. Clin Neuroradiol. 2016; (26): 47-55.

6.      Machi P., Jourdan F., Ambard D., et. al. Experimental evaluation of stent retrievers mechanical properties and effectiveness. J. Neurolntervent. Surg. 2016; (0): 1-7.

7.      Prothmann S., Schwaiger B., Gersing A., et al. Recanalization of Thrombo-Embolic Ischemic Stroke with pREset (ARTESp): the impact of occlusion time on clinical outcome of directly admitted and transferred patients. J. Neuro. Intervent. Surg. 2017; (9): 817-822.

8.      Shams T., Zaidat O., Yavagal D., et al. Society of Vascular and Interventional Neurology (SVIN) Stroke Interventional Laboratory Consensus (SILC) criteria: A 7M management approach to developing a stroke interventional laboratory in the era of stroke thrombectomy for large vessel occlusions. Intervent. Neurol. 2016; (5): 1-28.

9.      Seker F., Pfaff J., Wolf M., et al. Correlation of thrombectomy maneuver count with recanalization success and clinical outcome in patients with ischemic stroke. Am. J. Neuroradiol. 2017; (38): 1368-1371.

10.    Mokin M., Nagesh S., Ionita C., et al. Comparison of modern stroke thrombectomy approaches using an in vitro cerebrovascular occlusion model. Am. J. Neuroradiol. 2016; (36): 547-551.

11.    Raymond J., Ghostine J., Khoury N., et al. Endovascular interventions for acute stroke: past practice and current research. J. Neurolntervent.Surg. 2017; (9): 1-4.

 

Abstract:

Thrombolytic therapy (TLT) is the most efficient method of reperfusion therapy in ischemic stroke (IS), considerably increasing the number of patients with good functional restoration obtained. Carrying out selective intraarterial TLT (IA TLT) is feasible within the framework of a wider therapeutic window (up to 6-8 hours from the onset of the disease) under angiographic control and a possibility of individual dosing of a fibrinolytic employed. The present study demonstrated high efficiency of selective IATLT based on two clinical examples of patients presenting with IS. In the first case, a 55-year-old male patient with occlusion of M1 segment of the right median cerebral artery (MCA) and a baseline NIH score equalling 13 underwent IA TLT preformed 7 hours after the onset of IS, which led to complete recanalization of the vessel after 40 minutes, and resulted in a considerable clinical improvement (8 points by the NIH scale after TLT). The second case describes a 64-year-old female patient presenting with segment C7 stenosis of the left internal carotid artery and occlusion of segment M1 2 of the left MCA (20 points by the NIH scale). Carrying out IA TLT also promoted restoration of the blood flow after 60 minutes and restoration of the disordered functions (NIHSS score 14). Hence, the described examples demonstrate high efficacy of intra-arterial thrombolysis in management of patients with ischemic stroke.

  

Reference

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Abstract:

Aim: was to show possibilities of endovascular methods of treatment in patients with acute ischemic stroke in endovascular operation-room of cardiovascular surgical department.

Materials and methods: we present two case reports of treatment of patients with acute ischemic stroke, who were admitted to neurological department during first hours from onset.

Patients underwent CT perfusion, CT angiography of cerebral arteries. For blood-flow restoration, patients underwent thrombectomy

Results: thrombectomy from occluded artery was successful in both cases, that leaded to better recovery of neurological status.

Conclusions: wide application of endovascular techniques for restoration of cerebral blood flow in patients with ischemic stroke in the early hours of the onset of the disease, can lead to a more prosperous clinical outcomes, more rapid and complete recovery of the patient. Important is the presence of specialized personnel with appropriate skills and a wide spectrum of endovascular instruments.  

 

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7.    White J., Cates Ch., Cowley M. et. al. Interventional stroke therapy: current state of the art and needs assessment. Catheterization and Cardiovascular Intervention. 2007; DOI 10.1002/ccd: 1-7.

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9.    Wholey M.H, et.al. Global experience in cervical carotid artery stent placement. Catheter Cardiovasc. Interv. 2000; 50: 160-167

 

authors: 

 

Abstract:

Aim: was to show literature review and personal data on endovascular anatomy of intracranial lesions in patients with acute ischemic stroke.

Material and methods: we present clinical data on endovascular revascularization in patients with ischemic stroke, who were operated in Interregional clinical-diagnostic center for the period 2007-2014.

Results and conclusion: during cerebral angiography, we should estimate arterial, parenchymal and venous phase. Degree of flow recovery after endovascular reperfusion, is estimated on mTICI score. 

 

References

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2.     Berkhemer O., Fransen P., Beumer D., et al., A randomized trial of intraarterial treatment for acute ischemic stroke. The New England journal of medicine. 2015 1 (37): 2-11.

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5.     Mortimer A.M., Bradley M.D., Renowden S.A. Endovascular therapy in hyperacute ischaemic stroke: history and current status department of neuroradiology. Interventional Neuroradiology. 2013 (19): 506-518.

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16.   Nogueira R.G., Gupta R., Jovin T.G. ET et al. Predictors and clinical relevance of hemorrhagic transformation after endovascular therapy for anterior circulation large vessel occlusion strokes: a multicenter retrospective analysis of 1122 patients J. NeuroIntervent. Surg. 2015 (7): 16-21.

17.   R.G., Liebeskind D.S., Sung G., et all. Predictors of good clinical outcomes, mortality, and successful revascularization in patients with acute ischemic stroke undergoing thrombectomy: pooled analysis of the mechanical embolus removal in cerebral ischemia (Merci) and multi Merci trials. Stroke. 2009 (40): 3777-3783.

18.   Jayaraman M.V., Hussain M.S., Abruzzo T., et al., Embolectomy for stroke with emergent large vessel occlusion (ELVO): report of the Standards and Guidelines Committee of the Society of NeuroInterventional Surgery J. NeuroIntervent. Surg. 2015 (0):1-6.

19.   Broderick J.P., Palesch YY, Demchuk A.M., et al. The interventional management of stroke (IMS) III investigators. Endovascular therapy after intravenous t-PA versus t-PA alone for stroke. N. Engl. J. Med. 2013 (368): 893-903.

20.   Yoo A.J., Simonsen C.Z., Prabhakaran S., et al. Refining angiographic biomarkers of reperfusion: modified TICI is superior to TIMI for predicting clinical outcomes after intra-arterial therapy. Stroke. 2013 (44): 62-66.

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Abstract:

Acute cerebrovascular accident (CVA) is one of leading causes of death and disability in the population, both in Russia and around the world.

Aim: was to improve the effectiveness of the prevention of ischemic stroke (IS) in patients with asymptomatic stenosis of internal carotid arteries (ICA).

Materials and methods: this article is an analysis of the world literature on the subject of stroke in patients without focal or ocular symptoms (asymptomatic stenosis), medical and surgical (carotid stenting / carotid endarterectomy) correction of such stenotic lesions, postoperative complications, and the risk of stroke in the immediate and late postoperative period. We presented data on development of stroke, depending on the type of plaques, brain CT data, comorbidities in these patients, the method of surgical correction of stenosis. On the basis of international multicenter studies and experience of individual domestic and foreign clinics we performed evaluation of IS conservative anc surgical prophylaxis in this group of patients.

Results: performed analysis allowed to formulate recommendations on the tactics of treatment and examination of patients with asymptomatic internal carotid artery stenosis.

 

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Abstract:

Aim: was to estimate efficacy and safety of carotid stenting and carotid endarterectomy Г patients, admitted to center of cardiovascular surgery.

Material and methods: we investigated possibilities of treatment with randomization one-by-one, according to admittance to hospital and use of carotid endarterectomy or stenting. Final decision in each case was made by consilium. For the period 2011-2013, 269 patients were treated including 132 patients who underwent carotid endarterectomy and 137 patients who underwent carotid stenting. The majority of patients had an anamnesis of coronary heart disease or needed coronary revascularization. Symptomatic stenosis was an indication for 19,0 % revascularization in both groups (p = 0.994).

Results: there were no in-hospital deaths registered. Incidence of stroke after carotid endarterectomy was 6(4,5%) and 2(1,5%) after stenting. Transient ischemic attack occurred in 3(2,2 %) patients in the stenting and 1 patient (0,76 %) in endarterectomy groups. Major bleeding was observed in both groups with equal frequency (p = 0,584). Defeat of cranial nerves (7,6 %; p = 0,001) was only observed in the endarterectomy group. Finally both methods of carotid revascularization showed the same level of complications (p = 0,569) besides cranial nerve defeat.

Conclusion: carotid stenting and endarterectomy show similar results in the treatment of patients with atherosclerotic lesions of carotid arteries. Both methods can equally be used in clinics with adequate experience in surgical interventions on the heart and peripheral vessels. The complex assessment of the patient and the lesion by the vascular team is necessary.

 

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authors: 

 

Abstract:

Ischemic stroke (AS) is one of the leading causes of death and disability of the working populatior around the world. According to modern recommendations, mechanical thrombectomy with use of stent-retrievers is the most effective method of treatment for stroke. with localization of thrombus in large cerebral arteries of the carotid basin.

The article presents a literature review devoted to various stent-retrievers, their technical characteristics, and their potential for application in the treatment of acute cerebrovascular accident, ischemic type. The analysis and comparative characteristics of existing modern stent-retrievers are presented, depending on the diameter and artery bend, thromb characteristics, stent characteristics. 

 

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