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Aim: was to study the mutual influence of new coronavirus infection COVID-19 and acute coronary syndrome and to evaluate the effectiveness of percutaneous coronary interventions in these conditions.

Material and methods: for the period from March 21, 2020 to October 31, 2021, 5093 patients were treated for COVID-19. Including 208 patients with acute coronary syndrome with concurrent COVID-19 disease. All patients underwent following diagnostic procedures: computed tomography of the chest, electrocardiography, echocardiography, coronary angiography and, if necessary, percutaneous coronary intervention.

Results: we present data on the distribution of patients with COVID-19 according to the presence or absence of ST segment elevation on the electrocardiogram and the degree of lung tissue damage, as well as information on the nature of coronary interventions and mortality in these groups. A high frequency of massive thrombosis of infarct-related coronary arteries was demonstrated in the group of patients with STEMI. Possible mechanisms of left ventricular dysfunction that persist after percutaneous coronary intervention are described. A positive effect of endovascular myocardial revascularization on the degree of hypoxia in patients with COVID-19 was shown.

Conclusions: development of acute coronary syndrome with concurrent coronavirus infection significantly worsens the prognosis of the disease. Despite of the success of endovascular treatment, worsening COVID-19 infection can be accompanied by a sharp deterioration in the condition of patients, leading to death.




Introduction: the problem of restenosis prevention and its early detection is very important in patients who underwent coronary intervention with bare-metal stent (BMS) implantation in acute coronary syndrome (ACS). But when is it necessary to perform elective coronary angiography in order not to miss possible restenosis development? This question needs to be answered.

Aim: was to define the correct period to perform elective coronary angiography after bare-metal stent implantation in acute coronary syndrome.

Material and methods: the study included 124 patients who underwent coronary intervention with BMS implantation in ACS, in period of 1-14 months before current admission. All patients included in this study had indications for repeating coronary angiography and were diagnosed hemodynamically relevant in-stent restenosis. No risk factors of restenosis were revealed at these patients.

Results: average time of restenosis detection was 7,9±1,99 months. Average percent of restenosis among all included patients was 68,6±13,1%. We also revealed direct correlation of percent of restenosis with time of restenosis detection (r=0,5785, p <0,05). Correlation between time and percentage of restenosis and stent type or TIMI grade, was also estimated in this study.

Conclusion: according to results of our study, there are good reasons to repeat coronary angiography in 7-9 month after BMS implantation in ACS, even if patients have no risk factors of restenosis.



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The phenomenon of unrecovered coronary blood flow, or the «no-reflow» phenomenon, is the most formidable and insufficiently studied example of clinical failures after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and is manifested as the absence of filling of distal coronary arteries. As a result, endovascular treatment may be completely unsuccessful or may be complicated by delayed recovery, the development of systolic dysfunction, the formation of heart aneurysm and other serious problems. Many experimental and clinical studies have been devoted to «no-reflow», but the evidence for this or that way of influencing the appearance of this phenomenon is very ambiguous. This article presents modern aspects related to risk factors, pathophysiology and methods for diagnosing this complication, as well as an analysis of methods for the prevention and correction of the developed «no-reflow» phenomenon.



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Aim: was to explore clinical efficacy and safety of two distal radial approach (DRA) types in primary percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients.

Materials and methods: 113 ACS patients with endovascular procedure that had been performed through DRA - met entry criteria. Standard DRA was performed within anatomic snuffbox in 82 patients (72,6%) and modified - on the dorsal surface of the palm (dorsopalmar type) in 31 patients (27,4%). Approach conversion was performed in 7 patients (6,2%). PCI on syndrome- related artery was performed in 94 patients (83,2%). On completion of PCI and final approach angiography, hemostasis was performed with bandage application for 6 hours. Hemostasis comfort was determined by 10 point verbal descriptor Gaston-Johansson scale. On the 5th-7th day after PCI, all patients underwent visual check, palpation and ultrasound duplex scan (UDS).

Results: procedure and fluoroscopy time, X-ray load, hemostasis comfort - didn't depend on DRA type. Examination, palpation, UDS performed on the 5th-7th day after PCI didn't reveal cases of forearm radial artery occlusion (RAO). Subcutaneous forearm hematoma (EASY III - IV) was registered in 3 cases (2,7%). RAO was registered in standard DRA group only in 4 cases (3,5%). There were no cases of access side RAO in dorsopalmar DRA group.

Conclusion: DRA modifications for PCI in ACS patients are valuable addition to classic radial approach. Dorsopalmar DRA can be considered as basic approach.



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Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in octogenarian patients. The number of such patients and the number of percutaneous coronary interventions are increasing.

Methods: literature report is based on data, searched in PubMed database, Elibrary, electronic catalog of the Russian State Library, published until January 2017.

Results: review showed reasons why this group of patients refers to high-risk patients. Also, we analyzed modern approaches to the treatment of such patients, significance of PCI, intraoperative factors affecting the outcome of treatment of patients with myocardial infarction.

Conclusion: worse results of PCI in elderly patients in comparison with younger group have multifactorial reasons. Different authors point on higher percent of comorbidity, and previous MI, worse cardiac function, higher iatrogenity Based on received data, we showed clinical problems in these patients, the solution of which would improve results of treatment of this group of challenging patients. 



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Aim: was to review the efficiency of complex methods of bleeding prevention in elderly patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) receiving combined anticoagulant and antiplatelet therapy during percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI).

Materials and methods: between January of 2011 to 2015 in «Pokrovskaya City Hospital» of St. Petersburg, 1435 PCI were performed in patients with ACS, the percentage of patients older than 80 years was more than 9%. To reduce bleeding risk we used: transradial access, diminished time of eptifibatide infusion, bivalirudin, intraoperative control of activated clotting time (ACT).

Results: significant decrease of bleeding episodes in patients with high risk of bleeding requiring transfusion at 0, 25% in the early postoperative period was shown.

Conclusions: the reduction of the bleeding risk will increase management efficiency among patients undergoing PCI.  



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The cardiac complications' risk factors and it’s stratifications in patients with non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome are considered in detail. The interrelation between risk factors, features and character of defeat of coronary arteries is defined. Early selective coronarograthy is most informative to identify patients with culpite lesion in this category. Early interventional radiology treatment has allowed to reach more favorable in-hospital and 12-month follow-up period results (patients’s lethality, non-fatal MI).




Aim: was to identify relationship between risk factors (RF) and severity of coronary artery (CA) defeat in patients, hospitalized with acute coronary syndrome (ACS), without the presence of ishemic heart disease (IHD) earlier.

Materials and methods: the research includes 201 patients, who were hospitalized to N.V Sklifosovsky Research Institute of Emergency Medicine from february 2011 to apri 2012 with the diagnosis «ACS». Main criteria of patients selection was the absence of IHD clinics in past. All patients underwent coronarography, obtained data was fixed in data base. At the time of arrival to hospital - risk factors were determined. To identify relationship between RF and CA defeat - statistic analyzes were made: the number of defeated CA (1,2 or 3); severity of CA defeat was measured with Syntax Score (SS) Scale (<22 and >22 points); praesence or absence of acute occlusion of CA of infarction zone.

Results: research consisted of 149 male (74,1%) and 52(25,9%) female, mean age of all patients was 56,6±10,6 yrs. ACS with elevation of ST-segment was diagnosed in 136 (67,7%) of patients. Haemodynamic significant stenosis (HSS) of 1, 2 or 3 CA were found in 56 (27,9%), 61 (30,4%) and 64 (30,8%) respectively In 20 (10%) patients - there was no HSS. Acute thrombotic occlusion (ATO) in myocardial infarction related(MI-related) CA was revealed in 146 (72,6%) of patients. It was noted, tht such RF as arterial hypertention (AH), smoking, low physical activity (LPA), was more spread with increasing numer of defeated CA. Patients with lot of defeated CA, were older, had higher figures of systolic arterial pressure (SAP). After examination and primary analysis, only age and number of RF had independent relation with prevalence of CA defeat. Patients with SS >22 points in comparison with patients <22 points, had higher AP, obesity, diabetes mellitus (DM), and more ofted had lack of fruits and vegetables. Also they were older had higher SAP, more RF. Analysis showed that only AH, DM, and age had independent relation with savere CA defeat (Syntax Score >22 points). Patients with ATO of CA, had higher such RF as smoking, LPA, DM. They also had more RF. After analysis - smoking and LPA were independently connected with ATO.

Conclution: such RF as age, AH, DM, LPA and number of combined RF in patient can have independent relation with volume and prevalence of CA defeat. Smoking and LPA can have relation with ATO, with clinics of ST-elevated ACS and macrofocal MI. Obtained data show necessity of inlarged reseach for a broad understanding og RF in connection with coronary atherosclerosis and thrombosis. All that can increase effectiveness of treatment and prophylaxis of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.



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The presented research on studying the efficiency and safety of various anticoagulants used in patients with acute coronary syndrome during percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI). High efficiency of a Bivalirudin is shown, in comparison with Unfractionated Heparin and Monofram on the amount of bleeding arising in the postoperative period and main adverse coronary events (MACE). 



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Coronary flow limitation during high risk angioplasty in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients is an important problem, connecting with inadequate myocardial protection during the coronary intervention.

Aim: was to compare intraoperative cardiohemodynamic in ACS patients during the high risk angioplasty of difficult stenoses in anterior heart arteries with- or without a coronary venous retroperfusion support.

Methods: intervention results of 14 ACS patients were analyzed. In 1st group there were 6 patients (42,9%) with intraoperative myocardial retroperfusion support. In 2nd group - 8 patients (57,1%) without any intraoperative myocardial perfusion support.

Results: during the retroperfusion support in the 1st group , «ST»-segment elevation at 60 sec left main (LM) or left anterior descending artery (LAD) occlusion was significantly lower (ST in V4-V6 - 1,9±1,7 mm) than in patients without retroperfusion (ST in V4-V6 - 3,1±1,7; p = 0,043). In the 2nd group, patients without coronary flow support the «ST»-segment elevation at 60 sec LM or LAD occlusion was significantly higher (ST в V4-V6 - 2,5±0,5; p = 0,043) than at 5 sec LM or LAD occlusion. No significant differences between «ST»-segment and «T»-wave deviation in the beginning and in the end of intervention were in both groups. The same dynamics was demonstrated at the time of blood pressure indexes measurement.

Conclusion: coronary venous retroperfusion is an effective method of coronary flow support during the high risk angioplasty in ACS patients. Retroperfusion technology had no influence on cardiohemodynamic, but reduced the risk of intraoperative adverse cardiac events. 



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Aim: was to study the safety and efficacy of the use of the drug bivalirudin in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) with ST-segment elevation.

Materials and methods: the study included 20 patients which were admitted to hospital with a diagnosis of ACS with ST-segment elevation. Among patients - 3 women and 17 men. The age of patients ranged from 31 to 79 years, mean 56±10,8 years. Myocardial infarction of bottom wall of left ventricular (LV) was diagnosed in 9 (45%) patients, front wall - 11(55%) patients. All patients in the emergency order underwent coronary angiography (CA) with further PCI. Multivessel coronary disease was found in 35% of patients, occlusion of a coronary artery - in 20% of cases, bifurcation lesion - 15% of patients, the left main coronary artery - in 30% of cases. Before performing the PCI, 14(70%) of patients were given clopidogrel (600 mg), 6 (30%) of patients - ticagrelor (180 mg) in combination with aspirin. Intraoperative, patients received bivalirudin («Angioks») under the scheme: 0.75 mg/kg intravenous bolus, further - intravenous infusion at a rate of 1.75 mg/kg/h during the whole period of endovascular intervention.

Three patients due to technical features during the operation underwent intracoronary thrombolytic therapy In 2 cases, situation required the installation of intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation. Results: 20 patients underwent implanting of 27 stents (mean 1,35). Immediate technical success of endovascular intervention was 100%. In the intensive care unit for 4 hours after surgery lasted bivalirudin infusion at a dose of 0.25 mg/kg/h, after the transfer to the Department of Cardiology continued therapy with enoxaparin within five days. After endovascular intervention patients were converted to standard doses of clopidogrel (75 mg daily) or ticagrelor (90 mg, 2 times a day), depending on drug, that patient was given during PCI and aspirin (100 mg); and patients receive adequate medical therapy of main disease according to standards of the disease. We presented clinical experience that shows safety of bivalirudin: in the group of patients was not observed any hemorrhagic complication during the time that patients were in a hospital.



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Revascularization strategy definition in acute coronary syndrome in patients with multivessel coronary artery disease is a significant problem of modern intervention cardiology Aim: was to evaluate effectiveness of special PC programs «Sapphire 2015 - Right dominance» and «Sapphire 2015 - Left dominance» designed to the revascularization strategy definition ir acute coronary syndrome patients.

Materials and methods: revascularization strategy of 50 acute coronary syndrome patients was analyzed. In all cases the revascularization strategy was defined by the group of intervention cardiologists with the help of independent experts and special PC programs «Sapphire 2015 - Right dominance» and «Sapphire 2015 - Left dominance». Experts-, physicians-, and soft- based revascularization strategies were compared among themselves.

Results: complete coincidence between expert-based and soft-based revascularization strategies was registered in 66% patients and the incomplete coincidence - in 32% patients. Complete mismatch between expert-based and soft-based revascularization strategies was registered in 2% patients. The complete coincidence between physicians-based and soft-based revascularization strategies was registered in 42% patients and the incomplete coincidence - ir 52% patients. Complete mismatch between physicians-based and soft-based revascularization strategies was registered in 6% patients

Conclusion: as well as experts, special PC programs «Sapphire 2015 - Right dominance» and «Sapphire 2015 - Left dominance» provide success in the revascularization strategy definition 1г acute coronary syndrome patients with multivessel coronary artery disease.



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Aim: was to evaluate results of endovascular treatment of patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) without ST-segment elevation, with multivessel coronary disease.

Materials and methods: 346 patients were enrolled in study and initially randomized into 3 groups. 1st group included 100 patients with complete myocardial revascularization which had been performed during initial PCI. 2nd group included 124 patients with complete myocardial revascularization, performed during initial hospitalization: 3rd group - 122 patients with complete revascularization, performed at different times after initial hospitalization. Inclusion criteria: ACS patients without ST-segment elevation; multivessel coronary disease (risk SYNTAX score = 23-32); high and medium risk for the GRACE scale; absence of previous myocardial revascularization.

Results: long-term results of treatment were evaluated in 192 patients. After 12 months, patients in 3rd group was significantly more likely to have greater cardiovascular complications and re-interventions on the target vessel. It was found that complete myocardial revascularization, performed after 30 days from the date of diagnosed acute coronary syndrome, has a negative impact on the prognosis of the disease (r = 0,58, p <0,05). Risk factors adversely affecting the prognosis of ACS patients without ST-segment elevation and presence of multivessel disease include: subtotal stenosis in non-symptomatic arteries; circulation failure Killip class III; myocardial infarction in past; high risk on GRACE scale; lesion length in non-symptomatic arteries more than 20 mm diabetes mellitus; degree of risk on a SYNTAX scale-score> 25; overweight/obesity; high cholesterol 6.5 mmol/l.

Conclusions: when performing PCI in patients with ACS without ST-segment elevation with multivessel coronary disease, performing a complete myocardial revascularization 30 days after the date of diagnosed acute coronary syndrome, has a negative impact on the prognosis of the disease.



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