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Two clinical cases of treatment of spontaneous hematomas in elderly patients with COVID-19 using endovascular diagnostic and treatment methods are presented.

Aim: was to show the effectiveness of endovascular hemostasis and, in some cases, there is no alternative to the use of other techniques.

Material and methods: we presented two clinical cases and analyzed the work of domestic and foreign authors on the prevention of venous thrombosis in patients with COVID-19 and endovascular treatment of spontaneous hematomas in patients with COVID-19.

Results: article describes two case reports of catheter embolization in patients with spontaneous hematoma during treatment of severe COVID-19. Elderly patients underwent prevention of thromboembolic complications with low-molecular-weight anticoagulants in prophylactic dosages; during therapy, soft tissue hematomas were revealed in one case in abdominal wall, in the other in chest. In both cases, conservative treatment was ineffective; bleeding required transfusion of blood components. In both cases, embolization was effective, and patients' condition stabilized. In one case, the progression of respiratory failure led to death, the second patient was discharged for out-patient treatment.

Conclusion: catheter embolization for arterial bleeding can be used as monotherapy or as a stage of stabilizing the patient before open surgical treatment.



Introduction: coronavirus (COVID) pandemic has caused temporary changes in work algorithms of different hospitals, that have not previously provided care for infectious patients. However, the consequences of COVID go beyond infectious pathology. Widespread use of therapeutic doses of anticoagulants as a necessary treatment option and resistant to treatment, cough as a typical symptom, led to an increase in spontaneous ruptures of epigastric arteries with hematomas of abdominal wall, which was an undesirable complication of the main disease.

Aim: was to demonstrate possibilities of endovascular methods in treatment of patients with spontaneous rupture of epigastric arteries on the background of COVID-19 and anticoagulant therapy.

Material and methods: at joinant infectious hospital, inpatient care was provided to 421 patients with coronavirus infection. At the same time, during treatment 9 patients had hematomas of abdominal wall and two of them had spontaneous rupture of rectus abdominis muscle and branches of inferior epigastric artery were damaged. In this article, we present both observations demonstrating the potential of endovascular surgery in treatment of such lesions in patients with COVID-19. Both patients, on the 6 and 10th day of inpatient treatment (severity of lung involvement was Grade 1 and Grade 2) during intense coughing, noted pain and swelling of anterior abdominal wall, accompanied by clinical and laboratory signs of blood loss. Computed tomography angiography (CT-A) revealed extravasation from small branches of inferior epigastric artery with an extensive hematoma that spread into the retroperitoneal space. In a hybrid operating room, a selective embolization of inferior (in one case, due to the high localization of the hematoma, inferior and superior) epigastric artery with an adhesive composition (N-butyl cyanoacrylate with iodolipol) was performed with successful angiographic and clinical results. Patients were discharged without complications on the 7th and 9th days of the postoperative period.

Conclusion: timely CT-diagnostic of severe bleeding, even in cases with atypical localization, and its management by selective embolization of damaged artery is the basis in treatment of spontaneous (cough-associated) ruptures of rectus abdominis muscle in patients with new coronavirus infection.



Introduction: pseudo-aneurysm of subclavian artery is a rare pathology and most often develops due to trauma or iatrogenic causes. Despite the rarity of this pathology, it can be accompanied by the risk of lethal rupture or distal embolism. Article presents a case report of endovascular treatment of post-traumatic pseudo-aneurysm of right subclavian artery with a stent-graft.

Aim: was to demonstrate advantages of endovascular treatment of pseudo-aneurysms, based on case report of patient with post-traumatic pseudo-aneurysm of right subclavian artery.

Material and methods: a case report of a patient with post-traumatic pseudo-aneurysm of right subclavian artery, polytrauma and pulmonary embolism is presented.

Results: successful endovascular treatment of pseudo-aneurysm of right subclavian artery with the implantation of stent-graft was performed. Postoperative period was uneventful, and the patient was discharged with improved health.

Conclusions: endovascular treatment is the preferred method, due to its less invasiveness and lower complication frequency in comparison with open surgery.




Aim: was to evaluate the effectiveness of endovascular interventions in patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI) with multilevel extended lesions of lower limb arteries of types C and D according to TASC II.

Materials and methods: a retrospective analysis of results of surgical treatment of patients with critical limb ischemia, who underwent 127 endovascular interventions on arteries of the femoral- popliteal-tibial segment for the period from 2007 to 2020, was carried out. 15 patients had ischemic limb pain at rest (11,8%) and 112 patients had trophic lesions (88,2%). Our study included patients with arterial lesions of type C (18 patients, 14,2%) and type D (109 patients, 85,8%) according to TASC II.

Results: technical success of performed endovascular interventions was 95,3%. Within a 30-day period, 2 patients (1,6%) had myocardial infarction, 3 patients (2,4%) underwent early «high» amputation. Perioperative mortality was 0,8% (1 patient). Primary patency of endovascular interventions was 87%, 58% and 36% after 1, 3 and 5 years, respectively, while secondary patency was 91%, 81% and 58% after 1, 3 and 5 years, respectively. Limb salvage rate was 93%, 89% and 79% after 1, 3 and 5 years, respectively. Patient survival rate was 95%, 84% and 78% after 1, 3 and 5 years, respectively.

Conclusions: endovascular interventions on femoral-popliteal-tibial arterial lesions of types C and D according to TASC II in patients with critical limb ischemia are effective, and modern method of treatment with good immediate and long-term results.



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16.   Norgren L, Patel MR, Hiatt WR, et al. Outcomes of Patients with Critical Limb Ischaemia in the EUCLID Trial. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2018; 55: 109-117.

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19.   Schneider PA, Laird JR, Tepe G, et al. Treatment effect of drug-coated balloons is durable to 3 years in the femoropopliteal arteries: long-term results of the IN.PACT SFA randomized trial. Circ Cardiovasc Interv. 2018; 11 (1): 885-891.

20.   Reijnen MJ. Outcomes After Drug-Coated Balloon Treatment of Femoropopliteal Lesions in Patients With Critical Limb Ischemia: A Post Hoc Analysis From the IN.PACT Global Study. J Endovasc Ther. 2019; 26: 305-315.



Article presents a case report of a 38-year-old patient who was admitted to our hospital with symptoms of acute appendicitis, she was examined and then urgently operated.

Postoperative period was complicated by clinical picture of colonic bleeding. During 1 st day of postoperative period, patient underwent a diagnostic search of bleeding source, conservative hemostatic therapy, transfusion of blood components, however, taking into consideration negative dynamics of patient's condition, laboratory test indicators, the next day, she was urgently operated: lower midline laparotomy, suturing of cecum hematoma, drainage of the abdominal cavity. Eight hours after repeated surgical treatment, against the background of transfusion of blood components, further negative dynamics of patient's condition, laboratory test indicators also worsened, medical concilium decided to perform angiography, followed by a decision on the amount of treatment intraoperatively. Selective angiography of branches of the mesenteric artery was performed, the source of bleeding was diagnosed, and a successful temporary pharmacologic endovascular hemostasis of the branch of the superior mesenteric artery was performed. Post-hemorrhagic anemia in the patient was corrected on the 3rd day after endovascular intervention, 10 days after, patient was discharged in a satisfactory condition.

The choice of the method of endovascular intervention was carried out taking into consideration the ineffective of reoperation, patient's condition, as well as peculiarities of the blood supply to the area of the alleged source of bleeding.

The study also discusses indications and methods of endovascular treatment of colonic bleeding.




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This study presents an overview of modern methods of surgical and endovascular treatment of atherosclerotic lesions of the superficial femoral artery

Aim: was to analyze the state of surgical and endovascular treatment of atherosclerotic lesions of the superficial femoral artery according to the modern literature in the field of vascular surgery

Results: this review analyzes more than 30 relevant publications presented in both domestic anc foreign press over the past 20 years, taking into account a variety of meta-analyses.

Conclusions: this topic is very relevant today, as the increase in the number of surgical and endovascular interventions in lesions of the superficial femoral artery dictates new research to develop optimal tactics of treatment of this category of patients.



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The article presents a case report of endovascular treatment of acute superior mesenteric artery occlusion in a patient with long reception of new oral anticoagulants. Despite the low incidence of this condition (3-5%), mortality in patients with this pathology is extremely high (80-85%). In this case combination of percutaneous mechanical thrombaspiration from superior mesenteric artery by coronary thrombaspiration system and intravenous GP IIb/IIIa antagonists demonstrated satisfactory outcome. Endovascular interventions proved to be effective, minimally invasive and safe technique in patients with acute mesenteric ischemia in superior mesenteric artery system.



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Background: we present a literary review of foreign articles on the strategy of treating of patients with blunt abdominal trauma and/or pelvic fractures, without laparotomic access using endovascular diagnosis and treatment.

Aim: was to analyze the modern approach in the diagnosis and treatment of arterial bleeding Г patients with blunt abdominal trauma and/or pelvic fractures according to literary sources. Materials and methods: article reviewed 3 studies, 1 literary review of articles by foreign authors and guidelines of the Eastern Association of Traumatology

Results: computed tomography with contrast enhancement was the method of choice for diagnosing blunt abdominal trauma and pelvic fractures, endovascular treatment of arterial hemorrhage has proven its effectiveness and is increasingly included in routine practice in both hemodynamically stable patients and patients with unstable hemodynamics.

Conclusion: catheter embolization for arterial bleeding can be used as monotherapy or as a stage of stabilizing the patient before open surgical treatment.



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Article presents a clinical case of 83-year old woman with successful aspiration thrombectomy from the superior mesenteric artery due to its thromboembolism with the help of endovascular reperfusion catheter ACE68. Due to the satisfactory angiographic and clinical results - additional manipulations (artery stenting, selective thrombolysis) were not performed. Time from the onset of the disease to the restoration of blood mesenteric flow in the basin of the superior mesenteric artery was 24 hours, laparotomy or laparoscopy in post-operative period were not necessary. This article also discusses indications for endovascular treatment of acute occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery.



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Internal carotid artery (ICA) pathological kinking considered to be one of the main causes of stroke. Aim of our study was to assess endovascular possibilities to manage this condition. Carotid stenting performed in 15 non-fixed human corpses with ICA kinking (6 - L-shaped, 5 - S-shaped, 4 - looping) under hydrodynamic monitoring.

It is shown that endovascular correction (stenting) of kinked ICA straightens the artery, considerably reduces pressure gradient, and increases volume of flow. At the same time carotid stenting, performed for ICA kinking, does not distress the vessel wall, in particular, it causes no significant intimal trauma. 




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We presented results of pulmonary arteriovenous fistula's endovascular correction of right lung in patient with subcardiac form of partial anomalous drainage of pulmonary veins, complicated with chronic pulmonary infection of hypoplastic right lung and hemoptysis.



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Choice of treatment strategy in patients with recurrent angina after coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) is still an actual question. Repeat CABG is associated with an increased risk of mortality and large cardiovascular events, so percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is the main strategy in these patients. Criteria for choosing between the bypass and the native vessel stenting are not fully understood, as well as not resolved the question of the differentiated approach to the choice of defeat for stenting

Aim: was to compare long-term results of stenting of bypass and native coronary arteries in patients with recurrent angina after CABG using the algorithm proposed in the study.

Materials and methods: study was conducted in 2010-2014 years. in «3rd Central Military Clinical Hospital named after A.A.Vishnevsky of Ministry of Military Defence». A total of 168 patients with the defeat of coronary bypass graft were operated: revascularization of the native vessel - 80 patients, stenting of coronary bypass graft was performed in 88 patients.

Treatment groups were comparable in all major clinical characteristics of patients, as well as on the number of affected arteries, the total number of bypasses, the number of working bypasses, and diffuse lesion of the native channel.

The degree of stenosis of the native vessel was significantly higher in the second group, and the degree of stenosis of bypasses was significantly higher in the first group. Diffuse lesions of coronary bypasses were significantly more frequent in the first group.

Long-term results of the study were followed up in patients in the observation period of 3 to 36 months (mean follow-up was 21(14-27) months). The average duration was not significantly different between treatment groups.

Results: the incidence of myocardial infarction was comparable between groups. In group of coronary bypass graft stenting, revascularization procedures frequency was higher than in the native vessel revascularization (20,45% and 16,25%, respectively, p = 0,0045), and also had a higher incidence of target lesion revascularization (11.36% and 6.25%, respectively, p = 0,0045).

The cumulative rate of major cardiovascular events did not differ significantly, but there was a certain tendency toward a lower incidence of major cardiovascular events in the group of revascularization of the native vessel. 



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3.    Brilakis E.S., de Lemos J.A., Cannon C.P., et al. Outcomes of patients with acute coronary syndrome and previous coronary artery bypass grafting (from the Pravastatin or Atorvastatin Evaluation and Infection Therapy [PROVE IT-TIMI 22] and the Aggrastat to Zocor [A to Z] trials). Am.J. Cardiol. 2008;102:552-8.

4.    Brilakis E.S., Wang T.Y, Rao S.V., et al. Frequency and predictors of drug-eluting stent use in saphenous vein bypass graft percutaneous coronary interventions: a report from the American College of Cardiology National Cardiovascular Data CathPCI registry. JACC Cardiovasc Interv. 2010; 3:1068-73.

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6.    Brilakis E.S1, Rao S.V., Ba



Purpose. Evaluation of twelve-year results of abdominal aortic aneurysm treatment by Ella stent-grafts with regard to safety and effectiveness in relation to morphology of the aneurysm.

Methods. From a group of 297 patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm, for whom elective endovascular treatment was considered, 204 of them (68,68%) were found to be suitable for this type of therapy. The bifurcated type of stent-graft was implanted in 176 patients, uniiliacal type in 23 patients and only 5 patients were found to be suitable for tubular type of stent-graft. Additional necessary procedures (internal iliac artery occlusion or contra lateral common iliac artery occlusion in a group of patients with uniiliacal type of stent-graft) were performed surgically during the stent-graft implantation.

Results. Primary technical success was achieved in 193 of the 204 patients (94,6%). Primary endoleak was recorded in 11 patients (primary endoleak type I in 7 patients, type I b in 3 patients and type III a in one patient). Assisted technical success after reintervention or spontaneous seal was 99,02%.

Surgical conversion was indicated in 2 patients (0,98%). Perioperative mortality rate was 3,43%. In 20 patients (9,80%) secondary endoleak type II and in 4 patients (1,96%) secondary endoleak type III was found at control CT and in three patients partial thrombosis of the stent-graft was found. There was one aneurysm rupture during follow-up.

Conclusion. Treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysm with Ella stent-graft system is effective and safe. Bifurcated stent-graft is the most frequently used type. Uniiliacal type of stent-graft is used by us only in cases of complicated morphology. 




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8.        Hausegger K.A., Mendel H., Tiessenhausen K., Kaucky M., Aman W., Tauss J., Koch G. Endoluminal treatment of infrarenal aortic aneurysms: Clinical experience with the Talent stentgraft system. J. Vasc. Interv. Radiol. 1999; 10: 267–274.



9.        Kato N., Dake M.D., Semba C.P., Razavi M.K., Kee S.T., Slonim S.M., Samuels S.L.W., Terasaki K.K., Zarins C.K., Mitchell R.S., Miller D.C. Treatment of aortoiliacal aneurysms with use of single-piece tapered stent-grafts. J. Vasc. Interv. Radiol. 1998; 9: 41–49.



10.      Tutein Nolthenius R.P., van Herwaarden J.A., van den Berg J.C., van Marrewijk C., Teijink J.A., Moll F.L. Three year single centre experience with the AneuRx aortic stent-graft. Eur. J. Vasc. Endovasc. Surg. 2001; 22: 257–264.



11.      Hill B.B., Wolf Y.G., Lee W.A., Arko F.


One of complications of using hemodialysis catheters is stenosis or occlusion of central veins. This may cause dysfunction of an ipsilateral arteriovenous fistula in the future. Despite of high restenosis rate - balloon angioplasty is a method of choice.

Materials and methods: we present a case report of successful recanalization and balloon angioplasty of left brachiocephalic vein in a patient, undergoing chronic hemodialysis with a functioning arteriovenous fistula on left forearm .

Results: the absence of restenosis during a year is an evidence of the effectiveness of this methoc as a treatment of central vein stenosis or occlusion in order to preserve and increase duration of use of permanent vascular access. 




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The world data devoted to endovascular treatment of acute thrombotic or thromboembolic occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery are provided in article. Various methods of intra vascular interventions are described at acute mesenteric ischemia: mechanical and rheolytic thrombectomy, retrograde stenting, thrombolytic therapy and some others. Endovascular intervention, according to different authors, may consider as choice option in treatment of patients in a stage of intestine ischemia.



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16.   Shipovskij V.N., Ciciashvili M.Sh., Huan  Ch. I soavt. Reoliticheskaja trombjektomija i stentirovanie verhnej bryzheechnoj arterii pri ostrom mezenterial'nom tromboze (klinicheskoe nabljudenie) [Rheolytic thrombectomy and stenting of superior mesenteric artery in acute mesenterial thrombosis (case report)]. 




This study was aimed to show effectiveness of endovascular procedures in patients with critical lower limb ischemia (CLI), caused by lesions of iliac and femoral-popliteal-tibial segment's of arteries.

Materials and methods: study includes results of treatment of 68 patients, who underwent endovascular procedures.

Results: primary technical success in group with A, B, C TASC II aortoiliac lesions was 100%, with D TASC II aortoiliac lesions was 91,7%. In group with infrainguinal lesions overall primary technical success was 91,9%. Regression of ischemia was marked in all patients. The average growth of the ankle-brachial index (ABI) was 0,3. During one year of follow-up period, 3 major amputations were performed (5,8% of follow-up patients) in group of interventions of shin arteries with one recanalized tibial artery Salvation of lower limbs was 94,2% without CLI signs reccurence.

Conclusion: endovascular interventions are effective, minimally invasive treatment for CLI. Endovascular procedures such as angioplasty with or without stenting showld be seen as a treatment of choise in patients with CLI for limb salvage.



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15.   Faglia E., Dalla P.L., Clerici G., et al. Peripheral angioplasty as the first choice revascularizaion procedure in diabetic patients with critical limb ischemia: prospective study of 993 consecutive patients hospitalized and followed between 1999 and 2003. Eur. J. Vasc. Endovasc. Surg. 2005; 29 (6): 620-627.

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